Ages and Stages Questionnaire Assessment Adrian Loucious EDU 618 Dr. Breegle Abstract The ASQ (Ages and Stages Questionnaires) is a series of questionnaires that is completed by parents of the infant or child, Preschool educators, Kindergarten teachers, and Day Care Providers. The ASQ is designed to screen the developmental performance of children in the areas of communication, gross motor skills, fine motor skills, problem solving, personal-social skills, and overall development across time. The age-appropriate scale is completed by the parent of the infant or child, Preschool educators, Kindergarten teachers, and Day Care Providers.
The items on the scale represent behaviors that the child should be able to perform at that age. The target Population of this assessment tool is for Children between the ages of 4 months and 60 months (5 years of age). This assessment is implemented in Head Start Programs; State funded Preschool programs and public schools. Ages and Stages Questionnaire A major obstacle to the timely delivery of early intervention services is the early and accurate identification of infants and young children who have developmental delays or disorders.
The first step in obtaining needed services for infants and young children and their families is the establishment of comprehensive, first-level assessment programs. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) meets these criteria for a first-level comprehensive assessment program. The ASQ assessment system is composed of 19 questionnaires designed to be completed by parents of the infant or child, Preschool educators, Kindergarten teachers, or Day Care Providers. Questionnaire intervals include 4 months to 60 months (5 years of age).
In most cases, these questionnaires can identify accurately infants or young children who are in need of further evaluation to determine whether they are eligible for early intervention services. Each questionnaire contains 30 developmental items that are written. in simple, straightforward language. The items are divided into five areas: communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social. The assessment is a criterion referenced curriculum-based assessment designed to be used with young children with disabilities and those who are at risk.
Intended Audience and Demographic Information The target populations include two groups: first group is children with known conditions or disabilities, and second group is at risk children from low income families. Children with known conditions and children whose development is questionable or appears mildly atypical should receive screening. Children with known conditions and children who are identified during the screening process should be evaluated to determine if they are eligible for services. The ASQ is the most effective and efficient type of assessment to establish eligibility.
The ASQ offers authentic assessment and results can be used directly to establish eligibility for services as well as to determine high quality goals and intervention content. Children with known risk factors comprise the second population. Children with documented risk conditions or whose development is suspect should be screened with a measure that has been determined to be both valid and reliable. The ASQ offers general screening in five developmental areas, communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social.
Table 1. Demographic Information Age| Setting| Population| 2. 5 – 3 years of age| Early care and Education settings, including child home| Low socioeconomic at risk children, or children with known conditions or disabilities| 4. 5-5 years | Early care and Education settings, including child home| Low socioeconomic at risk children, or children with known conditions or disabilities| 5 years of age| Education settings| Low socioeconomic at risk children, or children with known conditions or disabilities|
Scoring Procedures The Information Summary Sheet is an optional page that can accompany each questionnaire or can be completed and maintained by programs as a record of the child’s performance on a questionnaire. Cutoff grids appear on each Information Summary Sheet that can easily be compared with the child’s performance at that age interval to determine whether the child should be referred for further evaluation.
At the bottom of the page, for programs with digital scanning capabilities, ovals may be darkened so that scores can be automatically scanned into computer records The questionnaires are scored by converting each answer to a numerical equivalent and comparing the totals for each area with the empirically derived cutoff points for that area. The responses yes, sometimes, and not yet are converted to points 10, 5, and 0, respectively describe in the steps below. Step 1. Total the points in each area.
Yes responses receive 10 points, sometimes responses receive 5 points, and not yet responses receive 0 points. Step 2. Transfer the area totals to the information summary page. Fill in the matching circle in the space provided. Step 3. Read the answers to overall section questions carefully and respond appropriately. Step 4. Any score falling near or into the shaded area requires further attention or assessment. If a child’s score for any area is at or below the cutoff point, the child is recommended for a referral for further developmental evaluation.
Validity and Reliability The validity of ASQ has been evaluated extensively. Unique research sample included over twelve thousand children that represented the U. S. population in terms of race, ethnicity, and socio-economic groups. The concurrent validity, measured by comparing the percentage of agreement between the results of the parent completed ASQ questionnaires with the results of a professionally administered standardized assessments ranged from 74% for the 42-month ASQ questionnaire to 100% for the 2-month and 54-month questionnaires, with 86% overall agreement.
Data on the reliability included completed questionnaires on eight thousand children between 1 and 66 months of age. Reliability studies completed on the ASQ include test–retest reliability, and interobserver reliability. Test–retest reliability is designed to help determine the stability of test outcomes over time. Test–retest reliability of the ASQ was examined by comparing two questionnaires completed by the same parent at a 2-week time interval. Parents were asked to complete the same interval questionnaire on their hild twice within a 2-week time period between completions. The questionnaires were completed by 145 parents. The percent agreement for the 145 parents was 92% suggesting the ASQ has strong test–retest reliability. Educational Settings Before this assessment can be implemented in an educational setting consent must be obtain from a parent or legal guardian. Once the consent of the parent or legal guardian is obtained, the teacher should organize a pre-meeting schedule.
Before the meeting the teacher should become familiar with the questionnaire, remind and confirm the meeting with the parent, do not try to complete more than one interview at a time. The teacher need to make sure the correct questionnaire for the age of the child and the materials are available to complete the questionnaire. If the educator does not speak the language of the family, then an interpreter should be invite to the meeting. If possible, provide the copy of the questionnaire to the family, for them to review or complete before the meeting.
Head Start, LA4, Elementary Education Head Start, LA4 (Louisiana state funded pre-k program) and elementary teachers has successfully implemented the ASQ into and educational setting by identifying concerns regarding a child’s developmental, behavioral, motor, language, social, cognitive, perceptual, and emotional skills. Results from the questionnaires are used in conjunction with other information gathered by the program to refer children for further assessment to determine need for additional services.
The assessment is also used for a planning tool with parents to determine areas where they might need support and with teachers to enable them to better individualize instruction for children. They provide teachers and parents with strategies to use in working with children at various skill levels. Implementing Assessment Results The result of the ASQ provides instructors with instructional strategies for children with known conditions, disabilities or who are at risk socially and emotional. The results of the assessment allows for teachers to plan appropriate individual instructions.
Parents of children who has known mental or development disabilities can participate with the planning and implementing of instructional strategies. “ASQ’s benefits to parents last long after the screening is over-ASQ is the perfect way to educate parents about child development and keep them informed about their own child’s progress” (Brookes, 2010). Finally, Assessment of student social and emotional skills is very critical because today’s students face a world that will demand new knowledge and abilities.
In the global economy of the 21st century, students will need to understand the basics, but also to think critically, to analyze, and to make inferences.
Reference Brookes, P. H. (2010). Brookes Publishing. Retrieved August 29, 2010, from Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. :
http://agesandstages. com/index. html
Appendix: http://uoregon. edu/~asqstudy/index. php