Child Behavior

In an article pertaining to shared parent-child book reading, investigators examined over hundred eight month old infants and their parents to determine if the parents began to read to their infants. The investigators tested various factors such as an infant’s temperament, gender and other attributes along with the parent’s level of education, socioeconomic status, income, etc. Investigators predicted that certain parental behaviors would account for infant’s early reading and language development. They predicted parents that weren’t as educated would be less likely to read to their infants.

There was a prediction between gender differences and reading. The last prediction was that mothers that read to their infants would have encouragement and sensitivity behaviors whereas mothers that did not read to their infants would not have those behaviors. Many of these predictions were proven to have a significant relationship. A major finding from the research conducted in this study is that language development is strengthen through early shared reading, along with superior emergent literacy skills, and overall academic accomplishment (Karrass, 2003).

A study that examined interactive book reading with parents of at risk families consisted mainly of training parents in interactive book reading. The investigators speculated whether this training will result in a higher amount and more effective reading between parents and theirs children. They also questioned if certain children’s vocabulary will increase through interactive book reading with there parents. The final speculation was whether or not parents would find the training in interactive book reading successful and adequate.

After testing six families from low socioeconomic statuses, the study proves that parents and child communication from book reading did improve, along with the IQ’s of several children. Most parents also found the training to be sufficient; proving the importance of this study in terms of parental reading with children (Tavern, 1995). An article investigated the differences in socioeconomic statuses when pertaining to children’s reading achievement.

The investigator performed a longitudinal study in which two sets to of preschool students were tested; each set having fathers whose occupation differed in education and skill level. The investigator speculated that the socioeconomic status differences of preschool student’s phonological abilities will in turn effect early reading achievement once those students are in the first grade. After testing the students in preschool and conducting phone interviews with the parents, the investigator retested the children two later upon completion of first grade.

It was found that there was a significant difference in preschool students’ phonological sensitivity when comparing their father’s occupation. It was also proven that socioeconomic status differences did in fact result in a difference in reading and arithmetic achievement (Bowey, 1995). A recent article sought out to determine whether first through third generation children differ in reading level upon entering first grade. The researchers also wanted to determine if immigrant groups had different growth rates in terms of reading skills from kindergarten through third grade.

Lastly, the researcher examined if there was a difference between what may cause a difference between the rate and level of the growth of reading achievement in immigrants. The researcher collected data from the students, parents, and the teacher five times during a four year span. Overall, the researchers found that first and second generation children have an advantage over third generation children when considering academics (Palacios, 2008). Another study examined if growth rate in oral reading fluency is important in predicting reading comprehension achievement.

The researchers were mainly interested in determining if various literacy skills (phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, vocabulary, etc) within first graders through third graders were related to reading comprehension. After performing a series of tests with students of various gender and ethnicities, for over a four year period, the researchers determined several outcomes. Oral reading fluency is strong predictor when considering reading comprehension. It was also determined oral reading fluency prevailed over the various literacy skills, such as phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, vocabulary, etc. Kim, 2010). In an article pertaining to literary activities performed at home and the effect on early literacy skills researchers collected data from over sixty children and their parents. The children’s households all varied in terms of socioeconomic status. The researchers were interested in determining if there was a significant relationship between the reading to children in the home, coaching the children when reading at home and the overall home literacy activities taking place in the home.

The researchers also wanted to determine if after considering the children’s cognitive ability and the parents level of education if the literacy activities taking place in the home were contributing to the several literacy areas (letter sounds and names, receptive vocabulary, phonological sensitivity). Finally, the researchers wanted to determine if reading comprehension and spelling in the first and second grade was a prediction from the “outside-in” and “inside-out” skills acquired in kindergarten.

The overall findings in this study proved that the literacy activities in the home unfortunately did not develop general reading skills in children (Evans, 2000). In an article that examined the affects of children’s emergent literacy from the quality of adult book reading, the investigators the investigators examined forty-eight preschool children to determine which particular style of reading would be most sufficient when considering three separate styles.

A describer style (describing the picture in the book while reading it), a comprehender style (concentrating on the overall meaning of the story) and the performance- oriented style (introducing the book before reading it, and discussing the book after completing it) were the read styles of reading. The investigators predicted that children with greater reading skills would respond better to higher demand styles and the children lesser reading skills would respond better to lower demand styles. They predicted styles that had more interruptions (comprehender and describer) would be best for the children with lesser reading skills.

Overall, the investigators predicted that performance- oriented style would be suitable for more advance children, describer style would be suitable for less advanced children, and the comprehender style would be the median for average children. The results indicated that the predictions made by the investigators were concurrent. The reading style for children is very much dependant on the skill level of the child (Reese, 1999). An article that was written in response to the limitations of another article, examined three reading techniques with oven seventy children from low socioeconomic status families.

The first technique consisted of children being read to at school (day-care) with their teachers and with at home with their parents. The second technique consisted of children only being read to at school with their teachers. The third technique was a control group in which the researchers examined the children’s play time while at school with their teachers. The researchers predicted that the children who used the first technique of reading with their teacher and their parents would show stronger effects than the other two techniques due to frequency of the reading.

Children who used the second technique which included reading only with their teacher would show stronger effects when compared to the third technique (the controlled) but not the first technique. The researchers concluded this study finding that their prediction was true; teacher and parent reading to children will significantly increase a child’s reading levels (Whitehurst, 1994). Recently, an article was written to determine way in which minority parents (specifically African American) can become more involved with their children’s preschool.

The researcher developed and distributed a preventive intervention called the companion curriculum (TCC). Data was collected from the parents of over two hundred Head Start preschool students. The researched speculated that parents that used the TCC intervention more often would have greater involvement in their child’s home and school educational settings than compared to parents that did not used the TCC intervention program. Another speculation by the researcher was that the relationship between the parent and the teacher would be greater with the parent using the TCC intervention than with the parents not using the intervention.

The last speculation was that the parents’ emotional characteristics (i. e. depression) would not be as prevalent in parents using the TCC intervention. The results of this study show that though involvement in the study began to increase, the TCC intervention did in fact increase parental reading with children and parent-teacher relationships (Mendez, 2010). In a slightly older article pertaining to habitual parent book reading with children, investigators researched to what extent parents become less directive when teaching their children due to the child’s age and communicative status.

The investigators also researched to determine the relationship between the way parents interact with children and the child’s verbal IQ. After collecting data from over one hundred families, the investigators concluded their research with the following results: the findings were supported through the data collected (Pellegrini, 1985). One study researched the way which teachers and parents feel how a child should learn to read. Both parents and teachers completed a survey asking them to rate their belief about the teaching methods of beginning reading.

Surprisingly, parents and teachers had contrasting data in terms of their method of choice. Parents felt the bottom up approach was better, while teachers preferred graphophonemic component (Evans, 2004). An article was written to determine how a three year old child recalls the information in a picture book, after reading the book jointly in their home. The researchers predicted that children would actively point to ensure memory of the book material was taking place. The child would point at the correct item in the book when the item was spoken aloud (either by the parent of the researcher).

After testing and collecting data from over one hundred families, the researcher concluded that the results concur with the prediction that children will be able to recall information in storybooks (Cornell, 1988). In an article written about the involvement of storybook reading in helping kindergarteners learning new vocabulary words, researchers had children listen to a storybook repeatedly, then complete a posttest, to determine how knowledgeable students were concerning several new vocabulary words.

As a result of this test, children were more knowledgeable about words in the story than the word not in the story. This proves the importance of reading to children at a young age (Robbins, 1994). In a recent study, researchers analyzed preschool children literacy practices at home along with their overall literacy development. Parental reading to their children was analyzed along with the parental teaching of letters, words, etc. Surprisingly, there was only a small correlation between parental reading to children and children’s overall literacy skills (Hood, 2008).

In an article pertaining to researched based techniques for parents to tutor children in reading, five first grade students with poor literacy skills were selected to participate in the study. The parents of these children were trained on tutoring their children in several literacy components such as practice in reading, modeling, phonological awareness and fluency in oral reading. After concluding this research it was found that children that were tutored by their parents improved their overall literacy significantly. This reinforces the importance of parental involvement in terms of reading to children (Resetar, 2006).

In a study that involved voluntary summer reading with children between the first and five grades, the researched primarily wanted to test if students would improve their reading literacy more because they are voluntarily reading in the summer. Students were pre-tested before the completion of their school year then given several books to read during the summer months. At the end of the summer, students were given a post-test. The data indicated that though more students, voluntarily read during the summer, there was not an significant improvement in the student’s literacy (Kim, 2007).

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