Cleaning Support Portfolio – Hotel Management

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Stewarding: Exercise 1 Case Study 2: Penny Wise and Pound Foolish With Linens Washing costs 148 rooms Dish washing exercise Step by Step OPL Calculations Textile Knowledge Exercise Exercise Restaurant Inventory Choice of Linen in Hotel Business Inn Linen Inventory Analysis Standard Operating Procedures Manual Seasonal Hotel Standard Operating Procedures Manual City Hotel Cleaning Procedures: Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne – Student Dorms Lesson Notes PART TWO – Competences 1. Define the structure, the role and activities of maintenance sectors according to establishment categories 2.

Plan the work and need of staff in the Housekeeping Sector 3. Justify the choice of products, equipment and material in a hotel applying a sustainable concept 4. Establish effective interdepartmental communication channels 5. Define the optimal capacity of the equipment in an OPL 6. Compare the costs of the OPL and out-sourcing 7. Evaluate the impact of cleaning controls on the guest and the staff 8. Compare decisive elements when choosing the hotel linen 9. Interpret a linen inventory and dismantle its impact on the daily operations 10.

Summarize different technologies in terms of stewarding equipment 1 11. Interpret the restaurant inventory 12. Search for and analyse waste sorting and recycling possibilities 13. Analyse the need of deep cleaning and its impact on guest comfort Stewarding: Exercise 1 and 2 Exercise 1: Classification in hotel: Exercise Which of these areas are open to the guests in a hotel? With which of these sections departments do the guests have direct contact? Division Departement Areas Contact Revenue center Rooms Front office Infront of guests Back Back Infront of guests Yes Support center

Food and beverage Other Stewarding Accounting Back Back Yes Yes Food and beverage Rooms Kitchen Concierge Back Infront of guests Back Infront of guests yes Yes Other Maintenance Back Infront of guests Yes Other Rooms Sales and Marketing Housekeeping Back Infront Guests of Infront of guests Yes Yes Other Human Resources Back Yes Food and beverage Restaurants Infront guests Back of Infront of guests Yes Rooms Reservations Phone – Front Yes 2 Case Study 2: Penny Wise and Pound Foolish With Linens 1.

Do you think the hotel really saved $ 20’000 by reducing the linen budget line? Why or why not? No, the hotel didn’t end up saving $20,000 by reducing the linen budget line. They may have saved money on the profit and loss statement, but in reality and looking at the whole picture, they destroyed their customers’ loyalty, which, in the future, would lead to fewer customers due to the bad management and organisation of the hotel. Within the year period that the hotel “saved” $20,000, there were a lot of problems.

Here is a list of what may have occurred: • Guest complaints increased significantly • Employees were being de-motivated • Room attendants productivity goes down • No linen on hand ? dirty linen in the morning • Laundry efficiency decreases as the hotel wants to have clean and ironed linen as soon as possible but this may mean that the washing machine is not full all the time ? waste of electricity, money and not being sustainable 2. What short-term solutions can Penny suggest? What long-term solutions?

Short Term Solutions: • Ask a hotel to borrow their linen • Review the budget set on linen for next year • Ask the management to look at the budget again and re-think it Long Term Solutions: • Review management • Look at guest complaints and reviews and push that forward to management to see in which areas they could improve on • Look at par levels at the end of year • Review all financial statements, reports and statistics • Doing an inventory check more frequently to see which type of linen is used the most ? try to reduce the same problem as before 3 Washing Costs 148 Rooms 1. Number of yearly labour hours in the laundry 6 persons X 8. hours/day X 230 days= 11730 hours 2. Average hourly wage, all charges included 5 X 4080 + 4320=24720 (combined salaries/month) 24720 X 12= 296640 (combined salaries/year) 299640/11730= 25. 3 CHF/hour 3. 90% 4. Amortization and repair of the equipment: 10% of the machines and the linen stock 0. 1 5. Yearly cost of detergents 6 CHF/L % of time really spent on: sorting, washing, etc….. 80L/day 80 X 365=29200 29200 X 6= 175200 CHF/year 6. Various costs (50% of the yearly detergent costs) 0. 5 X 175200= 87600 CHF 7. Yearly replacement cost of linen (15 to 30% of the total purchase amount) 2500 CHF 8.

Cost for repair on damaged linen 3300 CHF 9. Interest on investment (X% of the purchase value on equipment and stock of linen less 1 par) 6% 10. Number of yearly opening days x number of rooms x effective occupancy rate of rooms 4 365 days X 148 rooms X 0. 9= 48618 Formula : (1 x 2 x 3) + (4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9) = laundry cost per sold room 10 (11730hours X 25. 3 CHF/hour X 0. 9) + (0. 1+175200 CHF/year+87600CHF+2500CHF+3300CHF+0. 06)/48618= 11 CHF Exercise Restaurant Inventory Before answering the following questions: Please compare and analyze the inventory figures for year 2008 and 2009. . Please circle the figures which are over passing the acceptable limit of breakages. N° article 512000 512259 512160 512566 512152 512250 512153 512154 512064 512056 512055 512260 512278 512258 512257 512120 512116 511037 514026 514206 514049 512265 511036 511035 511001 511002 514154 Articles Plates dinner white 28 cm Plate large dinner white 32 cm Plates dessert 24 cm Plates FUSION 29. 5 cm Plates PACIFIC FUSION 23 cm Plates ATLANTIDE 29. 50 cm Plates SHOGUN 29. 50 cm Plates JING QING 31 cm Plates ASSBORNEO-APILCO 21cm Plates Opera 16 cm Plates presentation 32 cm Plates, GALA FIDJI, 27. cm Consomme bowl Plates Bread 18 cm Teapot large Teapot small Cream pot Coffee cup Teacup Espresso cup Coffee saucer Tea saucer Espresso saucer Dinner knife Dinner fork Soup spoon Dessert knife Jan-08 52 89 81 12 56 79 83 74 40 49 137 57 80 90 14 20 20 40 20 35 45 25 40 130 140 100 260 Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Jan09 52 89 75 10 50 90 70 70 40 45 110 55 55 82 14 15 18 30 18 30 44 22 50 125 140 98 250 514100 514160 511006 512066 511012 511061 511015 511013 511016 511021 514004 514141 511023 511027 310000 514062 514063 514015 511062 514064 514017 514022 512104 512067 514028 512091 514034 514087 514250 514036 512063 512060 512111 512059 512065 513074 513052 513016 513054 513027

Dessert fork Dessert spoon Butter knife Fish knife Fish fork Gourmet spoon Oyster fork Coffee/tea spoon Espresso spoon Carving knife Salmon carving knife Bread knife Cheese knife Soft cheese knife Cheese slicer Salt mill Pepper mill Wine cooler Stand for wine cooler Candle holder Serving tray Mustard container Vinegar and oil set Wine basket Bordeaux red wine glass Burgundy red wine glass Open up Kwarx 37cl Open up Kwarx 27cl Open up Kwarx 17cl Water glass Cognac glass Whisky tumbler Chamgagner glass Chamgagner prestige glass Beer glass Grappa glass Vodka glass Irish coffee glass Decanters Water pitcher 50 245 130 50 70 30 30 120 62 4 1 3 3 2 1 10 10 10 6 15 20 4 4 6 30 40 60 60 40 120 24 14 46 36 7 8 13 10 4 10 Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces Pieces 244 240 125 50 68 30 25 80 40 4 1 3 2 2 1 9 8 9 6 15 18 4 3 5 20 33 50 40 38 80 24 12 40 30 6 7 10 8 2 8 2. As F;B manager your duty is to report to your managing director.

One of your objectives given by your manager is to reduce the amount of breakages, so make a proposal of three options which will resolve the amount of breakages. a. Knowledge of which rack to use with which cutlery, glasses and plates is fundamental to ensure less damages and breakages when the rack is put in the dishwasher. By avoiding overloading and by treating the plates correctly, fewer damages will occur. 6 b. Store the cutlery and glasses properly, trying to avoid breaking, scratching or knocking them over. Have the glassware in an appropriate place which is easily accessible and reachable. . Teach staff how to properly maintain the cutlery and glassware to avoid breakages and damages. This may take time and more money to train, but in the long run, fewer glasses will be ruined. 3. Please bring forward other reasons that could justify the fact that breakages are not the only explanations on the poor result of your stocktaking? • Staff being reckless and mishandling the stock • Slippery floors • Putting too much cutlery/glasses/plates on one rack • Breakages by guests 7 Dish Washing Exercise 1. What criteria are decisive when choosing a professional dishwasher? Speed • Efficiency • Durability • Easy to clean • Long lasting • Price • Number of stacks per wash • Budget • Staff training • User friendly • Economically friend • Environmentally friendly • How many staff are needed • Warranty • Hygiene • Quality 2. What are the consequences of an oversized selected dishwasher? • Costly • Takes up a lot of space • Only good for a very large establishment • Environmentally unfriendly • A lot of electricity waste 3. What are the consequences of an undersized selected dishwasher? • More dirty plates than clean plates • Durability and quality might not be as ood as an expensive dishwasher • More breakages • More staff needed • Less efficient 8 STEP BY STEP OPL CALCULATIONS 1. What should the capacity of washing be if 320 kg linen has to be washed? 320 x 130% = 416kg 130% = 30% x 320 2. As an average, a hotel uses 550 kg of linen per day. The laundry operates 5 days a week. What should the daily washing capacity of this laundry be? 550kg x 130% x 7 days / 5 = 1,001kg (amount of laundry washed in 5 days, for the 7 days of laundry consumption) 3. The laundry in the previous question is open 8 hours per day. The average washing cycle lasts 80 minutes.

How many cycles could the washing machine handle during a day? 8 hours = 480 minutes 480 / 80 = 6 cycles per day 4. By using your answer in question 2, what should the washing capacity per cycle be? 1,001 kg / 6 cycles per day = 167kgs per cycle 5. Your answer in question 4 represents 100% of one washing cycle. 40% is bed linen, 30% is bathroom linen, 20% is restaurant linen and 10% represents washable uniforms and cleaning cloths. As these types of linen cannot be washed together in the same washing machine, what should the capacity of each machine be? Bed linen – 40 % of 167 is 66. 8 ? 7kgs Bathroom linen – 30% of 167 is 50. 1 ? 50kgs Restaurant linen – 20% of 167 is 33. 4 ? 33/34kgs Uniforms and clothes – 10% of 167 is 16. 7 ? 17kgs 9 1 X 6kg, 1 X 11kg 6. For which reasons, can the linen in the previous question not be washed together in the same machine? Different department, different fabrics, different colours, different degrees of soil, different temperatures 7. The cycle of the tumble dryer lasts 30 minutes. What should the capacity of this machine be? 8 x 60 = 480 / 30 = 16 300 / 16 = 22kg per cycle (dried) (1 x 19) = (1 x 3) = 22kgs Textile Knowledge Exercise

You have received a bag with 10 samples of different fabrics. Each sample has a number from 1 to 10. The fabrics in the bag are all mentioned in the table below. Linen Linen jersey Cotton Silk Cotton – Silk Jute Viscose Polyester Nylon Wool – Alpaca Acetate – linen – polyester Cotton terry Could you please identify the 10 fabrics and write the name on the appropriate line here below. 1. Acetate – linen- polyester 2. Polyester – very slippery, very glossy 10 3. Silk – if it wrinkles, it is natural silk 4. Linen – wrinkles 5. Viscose 6. Cotton terry – cotton the fabric, terry the way of weaving 7.

Wool – Alpaca 8. Linen Jersey 9. Cotton 10. Cotton Silk Which two fabrics are not in the bag? Jute and Nylon CHOICE OF LINEN IN OTEL BUSINESS INN Hotel Business Inn is located nearby a Swiss business town. The hotel is well-known for its modern design and comfortable 148 rooms. The hotel has a **** business classification. The occupancy rate is above average and the target market is individual and group business women and business men. Hotel Business Inn needs to choose new linen for the rooms, restaurants, stewarding and kitchen. You are in charge of making this choice.

Below the types of linen needed. Justify your choice. Type Rooms Bed sheets Quality of fabric Justification Cotton/Polyester blend Polyester ? durable, crease resistant, little or no ironing, dries rapidly, can be laundered easily, resist soiling, Light and dries easily ? reduces water and time taken to wait for drying Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) • Cheaper • Good appearance, quality and durability • Comfortable and pleasant feel • Withstand hot ironing temperatures • Cotton is good at absorbing sweat 1 Duvet covers Cotton Blended fabric Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) Polyester ? durable, crease resistant, little or no ironing, dries rapidly, can be laundered easily, resist soiling Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) • Cheaper • Good appearance, quality and durability • Comfortable and pleasant feel • Withstand hot ironing temperatures • Cotton is good at absorbing sweat Cotton terry ? ood absorption, soft, comfortable, quick dry Pillow cases Cotton/Polyester blend Cotton terry Bath towels Cotton terry Hand towels Cotton terry ? good absorption, soft, comfortable, quick dry Bath mats Cotton Terry Pure cotton Highly absorbent, catches drips and splashes ? chances of slipping are reduced. Can be laundered frequently cotton ? High quality appearance, high strength, easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) Polyester cotton ? strong, wrinkle resistant, absorbent, easy to launder, light weight, dries fast Cotton ?

High quality appearance, high strength, easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization), soft and wipes stains Polyester cotton ? strong, wrinkle resistant, absorbent, easy to launder, light weight, dries fast Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures, Organic, soft material Restaurants Table cloths Cotton Cotton polyester Cotton silk

Napkins Service towels Polyester cotton Cotton Cotton Glass cloths 12 Kitchen Chef jackets Polyester cotton Cotton is lightweight, versatile , absorbent, crease resistant Polyester is insulating and cushioning Polyester ? durable, crease resistant, little or no ironing, dries rapidly, can be laundered easily, resist soiling, Light and dries easily ? reduces water and time taken to wait for drying Cotton ? High quality appearance, high strength, easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) Polyester cotton ? trong, wrinkle resistant, absorbent, easy to launder, light weight, dries fast Cotton Cook’s towels Polyester/cotton blend Cheese cloths Cotton Stewarding Dish towels Absorbs water and maintains shape Cotton ? easy to launder, good conductor of heat, durable, can stand very hot was temperatures (good for sterilization) Linen Inventory Analysis 1. What do the “Transformed” pillow cases stand for? Transformed pillow cases are pillow cases that are made from discarded bed linen. 2. Is Hotel Business Inn equipped with traditional or Scandinavian beds?

Hotel Business Inn is equipped with Scandinavian beds. 3. How do you explain the amount of 308 bath and 308 terry towels “In rooms”? By looking up the chart where the bath and terry towels intersect with the ‘In room’ column. 4. Where do you find the information to be able to establish the figures “In rooms”? By checking the rooms while taking daily inventory. 5. What is the difference between “Total linen in use” and “Total linen on hand”? The “total linen on hand” is how much linen in all is available on the premises, whether they are being used, laundered, or in stock. Total linen in use” is only the linen being used in the rooms. 13 6. How do you explain -35 “Loss” of pillowcases rectangular in shape? It is a mistake made the previous year in the inventory so it has to be retaken. 7. If Hotel Business Inn offers “Turn down” service, what should the amount of 4 pars of bathroom linens be, assuming the average change in the evening is half of the quantity being used in the morning? 304 people morning + 152 (304/2) people evening =456=1 par 456X 4= 1824* 8. A piece of linens can be washed approximately 250 times before being worn out.

How many par levels are then considered yearly, ordinary wear and tear? Use as an example this 148-room hotel at an occupancy rate of 90%. 0. 9 (90%) X 148 X 2= 266 people/day X 365 days= 97236/250 times = 388 sheets/year* 9. How do you explain the “Amount needed” of 577 bath towels? The discards were a little over 1 par, which is higher than ordinary wear and tear therefore more bath towels are needed for the next year. 10. If you open the new Inventory form for September next year, which row will you copy from this year’s inventory to the line “Last inventory”? The row that says “total linen on hand”. 1. If you do not get the needed budget to buy the missing items, how could you solve the problem still being certain you can operate smoothly during the following year? Utilize linens from previous year and/or negotiate with suppliers. 14 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES MANUAL SEASONAL HOTEL MODULE: 3. 0 Cleaning a Room SUPPORT MATERIALS Reference TASK: 3. 010 DEEP CLEANING IN SEASONAL HOTEL Any session support materials required or instructions to trainers ATTENTION What Prepare colleagues for the training An Intensive cleaning process which the hotel schedules in periods e. . monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or annually (depends on the type of hotel and occupancy) Reasons for deep cleaning is to maintain an environmentally fresh and clean hotel, for the exterior and interior to remain attractive, to reduce any bacteria (cross-contamination) and also for hygiene reasons (health and safety) For a hotel to be able to function at the same time as the deepcleaning process, they must maintain a very good relationship with the maintenance department, as the maintenance department helps them move furniture and fix items which may have been damaged.

The maintenance department also uses big, special equipments to deep–clean the carpets. The effort that they use on deep-cleaning is very time consuming and expensive, and needs a lot of special knowledge, but at the end of the day, the customers appreciate the cleanliness of the hotel more, which in leads to more customers in the future. Interest Need BREAKDOWN Demonstrate and explain the steps and standards, allowing the trainee to practice at intervals QUESTIONS STANDARDS PROCEDURE STEPS 15 Walls and Doors: 01 ? Cleaning of walls and windows ? leaning difficult places that usually aren’t cleaned properly daily (hard to reach) such as fans, air-conditioner vents and ceilings. 1. Why do we have to move from the bottom up? 2. How are the walls dried, once cleaned? 1. Start from the dirtiest place (the floor lining) and move from bottom up. This avoids marking and staining 2. After a wash from down to up, rinse again, keeping an eye on the areas in which the most dust could have collected 3. Once washed, leave the wall to dry Furniture: 02 • Cleaning of furniture and possibly the polishing of wooden furniture, for example. 1.

What is the point of moving all the furniture? 2. Ask the maintenance department, along with the housekeeping department to move the furniture away from the walls and into the middle of the room 3. Use a wet cloth to remove all dust, paying attention to areas where most dust could have been collected (wheels, legs) 4. For deep stains, special detergent can be used to try to remove. Leave for about 10 minutes before rinsing it off with cold water 5. Dry with a duster and then polish 1. Use a ladder for easy accessibility to the lamp, and carefully remove the shade from the lamp or light. . Use a solution with little acidity and alkaline (neutral) and soak in warm water before gently cleaning with a soft toothbrush (it may be a used one) 3. Rinse the shade in cold water, then leave in the shade to air dry (not in the sun, as the colour Lamp Shades: 03 • Washing and laundering lamp shades which are of soft material To clean hard to reach places such as fixed lamp shades hanging from the ceiling The possibility of cleaning and polishing fragile lamps such as chandeliers and • 1. How do we access the lamp shade if it is unreachable? 2.

Why should the lamp shades be rinsed with cold water ? • 16 ballroom lamps. BREAKDOWN Continued QUESTIONS 1. Why is it necessary to shampoo carpets ? 2. What do we do when the shampooing process is complete ? may die away. ) PROCEDURE STEPS Carpets: 04 • Shampooing and deep-cleaning the carpets STANDARDS 1. Get some help and try to remove all the furniture which is moveable out of the room 2. Vacuum the carpet to remove any rubbish/dust/food that may still be on the carpet 3. Look for any spots which may need to be spot cleaned and if so, remove it 4.

Using about 8/9 water and 1/9 shampoo, prepare the solution for the carpet edges and corners. 5. Using a shampoo machine, clean small sections of carpet, trying to work the machine in a logistic way (backward and forward in a straight line, and overlapping to make sure that the carpet really is clean afterwards) 6. After shampooing is complete, empty out and rinse the tank of the machine, refill with clean, warm water, and rinse the entire carpet 7. Leave to air dry 8. After drying, vacuumed again and restore furniture to their places BREAKDOWN Continued QUESTIONS 1.

Why is it necessary to rotate and flip the mattress? STANDARDS 1. About 4 times a year, room attendants should have a protocol to turn and rotate the mattress ? this allows the PROCEDURE STEPS Mattress: 05 • Turning the mattress upside 17 • down and rotating the head area to the other side Cleaning the bed frame and linen (bed protector) mattress to balance out (the body shape of the guests may have created a crater like shape) CHECK Question 1. 1 Question 1. 2 Question 2 Test recall and understanding of the task and the standards To avoid streaking and marking.

By the natural air To be able to access the furniture better (have a 360 degree view) and to avoid damaging walls and staining them Use a ladder or if use a elevating machine if it is in a ballroom (high ceilings) – may be accessible from the top To remove the stains from the shades. To remove any bacteria or dust which may be trapped in the carpet. The particles can create allergies and cleaning the carpet will make the room more hygienic and healthy. Leave the carpet to air dry before moving all furniture back into the room.

Do no move furniture into the room when the carpet is still a little bit damp To make sure the springs don’t get ruined and destroyed by the weight of guests Question 3. 1 Question 3. 2 Question 4. 1 Question 4. 2 Question 5. 1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES MANUAL CITY ATTENTION Preparing employees for training 18 What Intensive cleaning tasks scheduled at regular intervals i. e. monthly, quarterly, half-yearly and annually. Interest To reduce human error through cross-contamination, to maintain an attractive and efficient work environment and maintain high levels of hygiene and therefore safety.

Need Requires constant communication between the maintenance department and housekeeping as well as special equipment, techniques, skills and group effort as it is time-consuming and may be complicated. Demonstrate and explain the steps and standards, allowing the trainee to practice at intervals PROCEDURE STEPS Doors and walls • • Through cleaning of walls, windows and curtain tracks Cleaning hard to reach areas such as ceilings, top edges of doors, fans and air conditioning vents A. Why do we wash from the bottom, moving upwards? QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3.

STANDARDS Wash from the bottom, moving up wards, to avoid streaking and marking Rinse from top to bottom, paying special attention to the baseboards Leave to air-dry B. How do we dry the walls? 6. 7. Shift all furniture away from the walls Damp-dust thoroughly, paying particular attention to the backs and caster wheels Cane and wicker furniture should be vacuumed first and then damp-dusted with a well wrung-out micro fibre cloth. A neutral detergent may be used. The final rinse should be of cold saline water. Dry thoroughly and then polish Furniture • Sanitary cleaning of furniture and polishing of metal and wooden A.

Why should we shift all furniture away from the wall? 8. 9. 19 Continued PROCEDURE STEPS Fabric lamp shades: Sending soft furnishing to the laundry Carpets: • • Shampooing carpets QUESTIONS A. How do we dry the lampshade s? A. What is the approximat e correct dilution of shampoo to water for carpets? STANDARDS 1. Damp micro fibre cloth wrung out in neutral detergent solution 2. Rinse and leave to air dry 9. 10. 11. 12. Remove all movable furniture Vacuum the carpet Remove any stains by spot cleaning Prepare the correct dilution of shampoo (usually 1 part shampoo to 8 parts water).

Shampoo the corners and edges of carpet manually Use a carpet shampooing machine, cleaning small sections of carpet at time. Work the machine in forward and backward straight lines overlapping the preceding line by a few inches on each stroke After shampooing is complete, empty out and rinse the tank of the machine, refill with clean, warm water, and rinse the entire carpet Leave to air dry After drying, vacuum again and restore the furniture to its original places 13. A. After shampooin g is complete what do we do? 14. 15. 16.

Fans: • Cleaning hard to reach areas such as fans and air conditioning units A. What is the first thing you have to do before you clean a fan? B. Why do we use a neutral detergent? 1. Turn off the power 2. Avoid over stretching by using a height adjustable step ladder 3. Damp micro fibre cloth over the blades wrung out in a solution of neutral detergent 4. Dry and finish with a duster Seasonal Hotel ? Will need to be deep-cleaned after the seasonal peak e. g. in Thailand, the end of the seasonal peak would be in summer (December) ?

Needs to make sure that the demand for rooms is high and time allows for deep-cleaning ? time grabbing ? Cleaning processes need special detergents, special staff and training ? Might be the case that each hotel may need a deep-cleaning process to suit their hotel e. g. a hotel may have carpet, while the other may have wood. City Hotel ? A city hotel has a lot of customers throughout the year compared to a seasonal hotel, where customers mainly only go there in high season ? the hotel may need constant deep cleaning ?

Mostly done by outsourcing deepcleaners ? Done more regularly than seasonal hotels as there are more guests going in and out 20 The preparation procedures to clean an EHL studio It is essential that before starting to clean a studio, correct uniforms, equipment and materials are gathered and prepared for usage. Wearing the correct shoes and adhering to the uniform standards will ensure that hygiene is maintained and that nobody gets hurt or injured. The preparation procedure for cleaning an EHL studio is divided into 5 different categories hich are uniform standards and appearance, equipment and materials, entering a studio, laying the bed and cleaning the bathroom. We as Room Attendants, need to always keep in mind that we have to create a lasting impression to the guests and that if we were staying at the hotel, we would appreciate it if the Room Attendants were nice, friendly, dressed properly, smiling, hygienic, respectful and most importantly, if they knew our names. This all adds a personal touch to the service, which in the end of the day, creates a memorable and unforgettable experience. . Uniform Standards and Appearance: ? ? ? ? ? Hair tied back No jewellery A white coat Dark coloured, closed shoes – heels no higher than 4cm No sport shoes or jeans are allowed! 2. Equipment and Materials: Room Attendants Trolley ? Toilet rolls ? Knee pads ? First aid kit ? Mattress protector ? Bed sheets ? Duvet covers ? Pillow cases ? Hand or disk cloths ? Bath mats ? Face towels ? Bath towels Refill the linen trolley according to ergonomic principles – to protect your back and to make the task easier and more efficient.

For your convenience, have the towels stored on the top rack and the bed sheets on the bottom, to make it easier for you. b) 3 Laundry Carts a) 21 All contain a netting case: ? ? ? c) 1 for cloths and 1 for micro-fibre cloths 1 for bed sheets, duvet covers and pillowcases ? they require ironing. 1 for towels and mattress protectors ? linen to be folded The Cleaning Trolley ? 1 metallic cigarette container ? 1 box disposable gloves ? Light bulbs ? Disinfectant ? One container holding wet mops ? One grey container for collecting recyclable rubbish e. g. glass and plastic bottles ? telescopic duster ? 1 Johnny mop broom ? 1 blue container with control material ? Lid of container holds small tools such as a checklist Hand Caddy ? 3 micro-fibre cloths for different purposes o Red = toilet and walls around the area o Blue = dust around the rooms o Yellow = sink and shower cubicle ? Red cloth and green micro-fibre cloth to clean the toothbrush holder ? need to be thoroughly wet to remove the toothpaste stains ? Bottle of sterilium – to disinfect hands ? Neutral detergent – used on tiled walls, the mirror and floors of the bathroom ? Acid detergent – used on all wet surfaces ?

Bottle brush – to clean the over-air vent ? Blue disposable slippers – used to walk into the shower ? Kit of small pliers d) 3. Entering a studio: ? Knock on door twice and announce housekeeping ? Knock 3rd and use key to open door ? Switch on all the lights to make sure they are in working order and replace light ? ? ? ? bulbs if necessary Pull the curtains back, wind the stalls back and open the windows Empty the wastepaper baskets and ashtrays – sort out so that glass and bottles go into recycling container Line with clean new plastic bag and tie a knot around the edges.

Leave both bins outside the door (be sure to not obstruct the door way) Empty the ashtray and clean the ashtray with the white sponge and dry with toilet paper 22 ? ? ? ? ? ? Remove dirty towels and place in corresponding carts Remove toilet rolls and place on shelves by the door Flush toilet and push water in the bowl – leave brush in toilet Remove all objects around the sink to make cleaning easier Hang up shower curtain Take acid detergent and apply it on the bottom tiles of the toilet, inside the toilet, around basin, on walls of showers, on the mirror – leave them to react and go clean the rest of the room . Laying the bed: ? Pull the bed into the middle of the room ? ? ? ? Walk around it and remove any objects which may obstruct the passage or cause accidents Remove any personal items which may be placed on the bed and put them on the chair Place yourself at the foot of the bed – the bed is stripped from the bottom and made from the head Remove the pillow case and place it on the bed – take the pillow and the protective case and place it n the chair Do the same with the duvet – fold into three and make sure the label is facing you Remove all linen from bed and place them in corresponding laundry carts The duvet cover must be placed the right way around and not inside out to make the ironing easier Disinfect the gloves and take a piece of item back into the room and place them on the chair ? ? ? ? 5. Cleaning the bathroom: ? Take the pink cloth, wet it thoroughly and fold it – use sweeping motions to make sure that all the surfaces are touched with the cloth and fold once dirty. Always move cloth from clean to dirty surface.

Use knee pad when using surfaces near floor Clean around the bowl with the cloth and inside the bowl with the brush Flush toilet and close the lid Deposit micro-fibre pink cloth in netting bin Throw away gloves Put on disposable slippers on shoes to protect and step into shower Use the scraper, rinse and wipe remaining drops with yellow cloth Turn shower head to the wall of the shower Use yellow cloth to wipe tooth brush holder and wash basin – clean around the basin and on the walls (in, around and under) Spray neutral detergent onto mirror and remove with cotton cloth Clean taps, towel holders, toothbrush cup holders, etc, with the same cotton cloth Hang towels in an effective display and put toilet rolls on top of toilet and one inside the holder Use a wet micro-fibre cloth and stick it to the Johnny mop broom – make sure you try to maintain a straight posture to avoid hurting your back ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 23 ? Clean the floor of the bathroom – edges, under wash basin, overlapping s-shapes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Making the bed ? Unfold and spread the mattress protector onto bed Take sheet and kneel down and place sheet on bed making sure opening of fold is facing you and overhang is the same length Tuck one end of sheets under the bed to avoid it being pulled when doing the other side – tuck sheets underneath the bed and finish with hospital corners From the inside, find the duvet cover corners and turn them inside out.

Place hands inside cover and cease the two corresponding corners Make sure opening of covers are facing the wall Place pillow at head of bed and place opening facing the wall Use duster to sweep the room Wet blue micro-fibre cloth and go in clockwise direction When you have reached the window, close the door Put bins back inside the room and bathroom Plug in vacuum cleaner – start with edges and work in clockwise manner ? try avoiding to bend your back Kneel down to vacuum under the bed Walk around the room in anti-clockwise way to make sure all areas of checklist are done Switch off all the lights and close the door 24 Lesson Notes 1. Housekeeping Importance of hygiene and organization of the housekeeping department: • • • • • • • Role: • • • • Arrangement of ambience, hygiene, safe, comfortable environment. Poor housekeeping may refer a negative image of the hotel. Keep the value of the building Housekeeping is in charge of decorations also.

Comfort Security of hygiene Service to the floors Image and reputation of the establishment and coherence wit hits position Client satisfaction Improves reputation of establishment Complies to hygiene laws Equipment and the way you work is very important because if you use the right equipment/techniques you can save a lot of time and also sometimes the way you work can be unhealthy so you need the right procedures. Ideas of Comfort: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Menus pillows + mattresses Bathtub Temperature Smell (or absence of it) Windows Lights Colour Turn down service Noise Decorations e. g. flowers VIP Special services Touch, e. g. comfortable linen, soft. 25

EXPLANATION OF HOUSKEEPING BUDGET: HOUSEKEEPING PAYROLL BUDGET The Hotel Bellevue has 144 rooms After a time and motion study and an evaluation of performance standards, the Executive Housekeeper decides that each member of the room staff team (room attendant) can clean 16 rooms per day. The Reception informs HK that the occupancy rate forecast for the coming year is 78%. Calculate how many staff members the Executive Housekeeper must recruit for her team, and how much the annual salary payroll will be, knowing that a chambermaid earns on average CHF 3’200. – per month, including charges. HOUSEKEEPING PAYROLL BUDGET 1) How many days per year does a chambermaid work? 52 weeks 05 weeks of holidays 52-5= 47 weeks of work x 2 annual public holidays 6 days 230 days 2) According to the forecast, how many rooms must be cleaned?

If the hotel was full, there would be: 144 rooms x 365 = 52’560 rooms As the average occupancy rate forecast is 78% this means there will be : 144 x 365 x 78% = 40’996,8 rooms per year. 3) How many rooms will a chambermaid clean in a year? One chambermaid can clean: 16 rooms x 230 = 3’680 rooms. 5×7= 365 days 35 days 94 days of leave 26 4) How many chambermaids are needed? 40’996,8 3’680 5) How much does a chambermaid cost per year? CHF 3’200. – per month, including all charges x 13 = CHF 41’600. – /year 6) Annual payroll cost CHF 41’600. – x 11 = CHF 457’600. Subcontracting : The act of giving an activity and its management to an outside service provider, as opposed to doing it internally.

Procedure and documentation : an agreement is made beteen the hotel and the outsourcing firm. Advantages : • Reduction of costs • Improvement of service due to experience of company • More flexibility in time • Working with knowledgable experts • Management/recruitment/training not needed • No costs for equipment • No space requirements Disadvantages : • • • • • • • Higher turn-over rate of workers The workers may not show up within expected times Lower supervision can cause problems Difference between contract cleaners and hotel standards of quality Subcontractor staff has lack of experience and knoweldge with the structure Negative communication is more likely Different goals between subcontrator and company. i. . 11 chambermaids 27 Chambermaid guest room attendants report to the floor supervisor or the night supervisor in case of night room attendants. Usually they do 12-15 rooms in luxury hotels, and more in less luxurious hotels. The decision between sub-contracting really depends on the type of hotel that you have. Executive Housekeper: • • • • • • • • • Report to managemrs Also responsible for overall appearance of hotel Responsible for the staff. Organizes meetings. Makes sure gygene ; safety regulations are met Takes care of training Communication Provides budgets and forecasts Establish and maintian standard operating procedures for cleaning.

Butler: • • • • • • • • • • Welcoming and escorting Provide unique service Responsible for coordination of the arrivals and departures of guests Take care of the guest’s luggage Make sure that the guests are always in a clean condition Manage all special requests Provide exeptional and memorable services Manage shoesine, garmet pressing and special services Make sure all guest requests are met Execute guest orders 28 Staff Roles and Tasks Departments Money Invested Coordination Hierarchy Work sheduel Equipment Organization and rules Small Hotel Less More Small Less Easy Flexible Easy Outsource Less strict Large Hotel More Less because more specific Large More Harder Strict Harder Stricter Floor Coordinator : • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Supervise handing of oiled and fresh linen Ensure supply of equipment and maintenance of cleaning supplies to floors and public areas Issues floor keys to room attendants Supervises spring cleaning Report on maintenance work on the floor Coordinate with room service for clearing Maintain stock for the respective floors Coordinate with the front office manager Facilitate the provision of extra services Immediately report any safety or security hazard Prepare housekeeping status reports Supervise cleaning on allotted floors and areas Report on standards of individual staff performance He reports to the assistant housekeeper and executive housekeeper. He has the final responsibility for the condition of guestrooms. Generally 3 or more floors Assigns the rooms Checks,supervises and approves attendant’s work Periodically inspects all rooms What impact does minimal wage have on staff motivation and service of quality ? • Demotivating if wage is to the minimum If wage is low motivation is low. 29 Following what criteria do you choose staff in house keeping ? • • • • Experience Motivation Competency Level of quality For lesson 3 Answer the QUESTION Employees of Housekeepers information : Only one executive housekeeper. The number of floor supervisors is calculated with the number of rooms that they have. In luxury about 40-50. Others 80-100. Room attendants are calculated by the amount of square meeeters. Employee motivation : • • • • • • • • • Financial incentives Recognition Participation Communication Delegation responsibilities Training and crosss-training Performance appraisal Discipline Employee welfare

Relationship between HK department and HR department : 1. Recruiting : the two departments must prepare the job descriptions together 2. Orienting : they prepare toggether the welcoming procedure for new employees 3. Training : they decide together conccerning wages, training and trainging budget. 4. Discipline : They discuss together the caues of conflict ; their possible solutions. 30 Relations between management and HK : Daily Monthly • Room • Feedback preparation sessions • Feedback • Employee of the sessions for each month department • Head of • Communications departments about room occupancyspecific information about guests e. g. Names, check-in times, number of guests, departing date, etc. Communication between different levels of hierarchyGrieance Relationship between HK and Security : • Housekeeping personnel needs to become aware and have concenr regarding the fragility of our hospitality industry with regard to foreseeable security and safety matters The function of hospitality security is every employee’s responsibilitiy Noother hotel emploees have as much access to hotel assets and guest property as do members of the hosekeeping department. Management must consider the risk of safety and theft- it is real and must not be overseen Therefore it can be said that based on room access. The housekeeping department serves as the back eye of security.

Housekeeping staff is constant in contact of hotel areas and guests Houskeeping must keep their eyes open over any possible security problems Annually • Training Program • Budget discussion • Shares inventory data with general manager • Employee satisfaction survey • Employee evaluationmanager evaluates the employee. • • • • • • 31 Possible conflicts between HK and F;B : • • • Time for exchange of linen has to be respected Communication for upcoming events early enough Coordination with the room serivice (taking away used trays) Relations between HK and F;B : • • • • • • • Provision of linen and uniforms Stock of lean napery(for restaurants and banqueets) Time management Communication Decoration Cleans outlets Staff provision

Communications necessary for the service to function correctly : • • Financial reasons : If HK does not inform mainananance to clean room, room cannot be sold. NO COMMUNICATION= NO MONEY Deep Cleaning have to work together closely ; mainanance has to remove furniture in order to clean. NO COMMUNICATION=NO CLEANING Broken times : HK needs to inform maintenance in order for them to fix it- if its big machine, maintenance will decide how to deal with it. • Relationship with the front office from the FO department to the HK department : 1. FO has to provide check in and check out times of the guests so they can make the rooms 2. FO has to provie HK with occupancy rate 3. FO also has to communicate complaints about rooms 4.

FO informs HK if additional items are needed 5. HK has to provide the estimated times for when they will be done cleaning up the rooms 6. HK also has to inform FO when the rooms have been cleaned Communication between Front Office and Housekeeping: • • • Printed/electronic list of the occpancy rate for HK members Communication via radio Communication via phone 32 • Verbal communicaton • Hotel database/network used to indicate that the room is cleaned Cleaning methods : Clean in line, do not clean making circles. Always clean with clean cloth, fold it again in order to ahve a cleaner side. Always start with cleanest spot and make your way to dirtyest spot. NEVER put linen on the floor !!!!

Sustainablility tourism company: industry which attempts to make low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate income, employment, and the conservation of local ecosystems . Frequency planning : a document that shows you the work you have to do e. g. once a week or once a month, for example clean the chandeliers once a month. If gloves are treated well and cleaned daily they can be kept for 1 week. Productivity sheet : a sheet that shows the procedures of e. g. a chabermade throughout the day. 2. Laundry Quality of linen according to its end use and type of operations. Objective : identify linen fabrics and their origin. Select appropriate fabric according to usage. Select linen according to quality and its life span. List and explain the use of various finishing processes.

Types of textiles : • • Cotton Polyester If it is not treated it is usually very slippery. Also it does not wrinkle. • • • • • • Wool Linen Terry Damask Viscose Percale 33 • Silk Pure silk wrinkles easily. If it does not wrinkle it is not pure silk. • • • Jute Nylon Satin Supply of Linen: • • • • In the rooms In pantries and on trolleys In the laundry and linen room In laundry storage as new stock The daily distribution of all the departments is based on: • • Requisition forms Cleaning against dirty Linen: not eternal. It ruins after a while. Good cotton can stand up to 250 washes. A bad quality may be dead after 150-180 washes. Polyester you can wash up to 500 times.

Therefore it is important to see what people are doing with their cloths because different cloths need to be used for different uses. If people are using the wrong cloths they are wasting money. With guest misuse of linen it is a bit harder to control this. 34 Scandinavian BED: Linen controls: Objective: Select linen issuing procedures. Prepare daily linen control issues. Analyse a linen inventory. Evaluate the need of linen stock and its impact on daily operations. The operating costs for linen treatment and the profitable investment in an OPL. Cost of the OPL operations: • • the costs are calculated per occupied room are included: o linen from ALL departments

Laundry outsourcing: • • • • • • owner of the linen never outsource your own linen personalised linen provided by the outsourcing company you can lease your linen – contact person and ask to see if they can fulfil your linen requirements and ask what the price will be “rent and wash” provided by the outsourcing company The price you pay may depend on: o Per kg ingoing o Per kg outgoing o Per piece Investment in an OPL: Investment depreciated in 10 years • Amount spent in this investment should not exceed 30% of the total operating costs during this 10-year period. Yearly costs = 100,000. — ? x 10 years = 1 000,000. — ? x 30% = 300,000. – Satin – type of cotton (a little bit like silk) Cotton – needs to be treated 35 The Linen: • • The most important recycled inventory item The second highest expense (staff is number 1)

Supply of Linen: • • • • • • • • • • Stock of linen = 4 pars 1 par of linen is the total number of each type of linens needed to outfit the entire hotel at 100% occupancy 200 beds = 1 par sheets = 200 sheets 1st par ? in the rooms 2nd par ? in pantries and on trolleys 3rd par ? in the laundry and linen room 4th par ? in laundry storage as new stock 200 towels in the morning 100 towels in the evening 300 x 4 = 1200 towels Distribution of linen: • Daily distribution to all departments is based on: o Requisition forms o Clean against dirty o Self-service Wear and Tear of linen: • • Random controls during use Systematic controls in sorting room Discards ? records ? possible actions Purchase of linen: • • Purchase – yearly Delivery – according to need 36

Control of linen: Organisation of complete physical inventory o Who? o What do we put into the inventory? o When? – Low occupancy rate? o Where? – would you like to keep most of it in the laundry? o How? • Inventories are taken monthly, quarterly and yearly • 3. Stewarding Points to remember in stewarding: • Before putting dishes into dishwasher, use a spatula to scrape whatever is on the plates. This prevents the plates from having to be washed twice. Follow HACCP rules. Green boxes: only food waste, without bones, shells, etc. Black next to it: no food waste EXCEPT bones e shells and so on. • • • Many students coming out of EHL are in charge of this department.

Main activities of stewarding department: • • • • • Washing dishes/pantry Maintenance of silverware Washing pots and pans Management and selective sorting of waste Floors/kitchen/premises maintenance Responsibilities of Chief Steward: • • • • • • • Hygiene and safety Work organization Coordination with other departments Motivating team Planning premises maintenance Staff training Planning of work schedules Some rules of hygiene: • Differentiate clean area from dirty area 37 • • • • • • • HACCP, analysis of risks and tracking of critical points Clean working uniform Personal hygiene Hand washing Waste removal frequency Cleaning after each service Disinfection frequency

The costs of stewarding department: • • • • • Investment in equipment Salaries Power Water consumption Detergents The problem of tenacious food: • • • • Starch: can be removed at a temperature max. 40°C Albumin: water temperature max 40°C Grease: Detergent and hot water min 50°C Colourings and tannin: to be soaked and treated with chemicals Every dishwasher will be changed around every 10 years. Stewarding Organization: Role: • • • • Working close with kitchen Cleaning support Maintenance equipment Respect hygiene Organization chart: BIG HOTEL: F;B manager ? chief steward ? assistance of chief steward ? senior supervisor ? supervisor ? crew steward. SMALL HOTEL: F;B Manager ? Chief Steward ? Crew Steward 38

Profile of Head/Chef Steward: • • • • • • • Scheduling, work flow Motivating and training staff Assistance of F;B (budget) Right usage of cleaning support Respect recycling Respect hygiene GO CHECK THE REST 1. What criteria are decisive when choosing a professional dishwasher? -­? Staff numbers -­? Type of material -­? Budget -­? Size of establishment -­? Type of establishment -­? Number of covers -­? How many pieces each customer will use (e. g. we minimum 3 times more in fine dining like glasses or cutlery) -­? Cost of energy -­? Water consumption -­? Time -­? Maintenance -­? Leasing possibilities 2. What are the consequences of an over size selected dishwasher? -­?

Investment too high -­? Loss of energy -­? Consumption of water and detergent too high 3. What are the consequences of an under size selected dishwasher? -­? Too much stock put aside waiting to be washed -­? Difficult working conditions -­? More stress -­? More possibility of breakage -­? More tableware equipment necessary -­? Difficult to maintain a high level of hygiene -­? Takes too long to wash everything, therefore longer working hours, which cost more. 1. What are the main advantages for an establishment of having silverware equipment? -­? Prestige of the establishment -­? Tradition -­? Expectations of some customers 39 -­? Equipment length of life 2.

What are the main disadvantages for an establishment of having silverware equipment? -­? Maintenance costs -­? Frequent pilferage -­? Costly repairs -­? Weight of the cutlery, shape old fashioned 3. What are the various possibilities in a professional context for the maintenance of silverware? -­? The Vinegar and the cooking salt -­? The aluminium sheet and the bicarbonate -­? The Burnishing machine The Burnishing machine: the steel balls harden the silver and restore the original shine of the silverware. Breakages: a big problem and happens in every establishment. You have to set yourself a limit. Select different equipment for stewarding Glassware 20% China 15% Flatware and Divers 5% 40 Competences – Housekeeping . Define the structure, the role and activities of housekeeping department, according to establishment categories The housekeeping department is sometimes defined as ‘provision of a clean, comfortable, safe and aesthetically appealing environment’ or ‘an operational department in a hotel, which is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance, aesthetic upkeep of rooms, public areas, back areas and the surroundings’. It is one of the few departments in the hotel which operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. The housekeeping department is thus fundamental to the hotel, as it contributes a major part of the hotel’s margin of profit.

This department is responsible for not only selling and up keeping the looks of the hotel (interior and exterior), but also for purchasing linen with the budget the hotel gives the department, amenities in rooms, providing comfort to guests, deep-cleaning, supplies and maintenance of public areas such as pool washrooms or function bathrooms. The housekeeping department needs to be able to create an ever-lasting impression on guests, from the moment they walk into the hotel, and this is done by managing and co-ordinating tasks and staff accordingly. This department needs to be very organised and efficient, as they not only deal with complaints from customers, but they need to meet the needs and demands from the hotel (walk-in guests).

This means that they need to have a very strong relationship with the front office, as the selling of rooms go through the front office to the housekeeping department, where they receive a sheet letting them know about the guests, their needs, arrival times etc. Front of the house areas • Guestrooms • Corridors • Lobbies and public guestrooms • Pool and patio areas • Meeting rooms • Dining rooms/restaurants • Banquet halls • Convention halls • Hotel-operated shops • Games rooms/recreation rooms • Exercise rooms/gym Back of the house areas • Management offices • Storage areas • Linen and sewing rooms • Laundry room • Employee locker rooms • Administrative offices • Cloakrooms • Maid’s service room 41 • • Building exterior Landscaping and gardens

The housekeeping department is made up of quite a lot of staff, depending on the size and type of hotel. For example, a large hotel of about 450 rooms, can expect to have about 30 full-time/part-time staff. This number may or may not include the executive housekeeper, supervisors, and of course, the head of department. The executive housekeeper is responsible and in charge of the total cleanliness and appearance of the hotel. They supervise all housekeeping employees, has the authority to fire and hire people, plans and assigns work schedules, informs new employees of property regulations, inspects completed assignments and agrees to purchasing of new linen and other inventories regarding the housekeeping department. 2. Explain the ecessity of applying a logistic means planning methodology when setting up a Housekeeping Department When setting up a Housekeeping Department in a new hotel, the hotel needs to make sure that it enters the market with a systematic approach because it gives a good indication as to the number of staff needed, the budget, health and safety measures and the need for cleaning materials and equipment. Not only that, it is absolutely necessary that the managers of the hotel are able to predict or forecast the number of clientele expected, hence leading to the number of linen needed to be ordered and bought. When that is done, the managers would be able to prepare job descriptions for the staff, explaining their roles and duties are supervisors, room attendants, etc.

Each classification is different and so is each hotel with the size, so it may be the case that one hotel may only have 1 supervisor and no executive housekeeper, while another may have an executive housekeeper and 2 supervisors. When jobs are given and staff are hired, the hotel would thus be able to see the how much uniform would be needed to be purchased and then the hotel would be able to see which employees need training and which ones already had enough experience and just need a run-down as to how the hotel system and housekeeping department functions. It is absolutely necessary that all staff is motivated, determined and passionate about their job, because that means that the end result will be much better and rewarding.

Staff also need to get along with one another, not only those who work in the housekeeping department, but also have a good working relationship with those in front office because reservations go from the front of house, to the back of house, and if the relationship between the two departments is not good, work will not be as efficient and the quality will not be as high as it should be. 42 3. Evaluate the impact of new sustainable development trends on housekeeping as compared to traditional approaches Hotel concept is like fashion. New trend, new innovation develops every second. Eco-hotel is becoming more favourable in the market leading to continuous changes in the operation system in order to adjust the customers’ demand. Housekeeping department is affected by this alteration and is beginning to replace traditional approaches with sustainable development. Sustainable development is an objective.

Different approaches may include the usage of biodegradable detergents, eco-friendly chemicals, guest supplies and amenities should be recyclable, water conservation, or even an incentive programme to encourage staff to participate in ensuring that they comply with the new regulations enthusiastically. The new sustainable development trends in housekeeping department will create opportunity for staff to use more eco-friendly products, therefore, ensuring health and a more comfortable, safe working environment in comparison to the traditional approach, for instance: the use of traditional detergent is more harmful to skin, chemicals are more toxic to health. Another positive impact is that this raises awareness among staff and employers. A knowledgeable employee will attract the attention of customers to the specific hotel.

In addition, if the housekeeping department is willing to change all products and procedures to ensure sustainable development and adjust to the new trend, more people will become interested in the hotel and thus, more profit leading to higher salaries. Nevertheless, everything has two sides, on a short-term run, the housekeeping department may need more budget to buy newly developed sustainable products. In addition, new training must be given on how to use new detergents, new system must be implemented to be as ecologically beneficial as possible. This may de-motivate staff who are hesitant to new challenges, thus reducing the overall productivity. Hiring more experienced staff who are well-trained may also cost more.

Development of new system and new amenities is time-consuming as well as being costly, for instance a small change in linens used may lead to new machineries in the laundry department. Large source of finance is not always available in one second to adjust to change. This means losing competitive edge. 43 Impact can be both positive and negative; however, devising a logical control will help cost-saving in long-term run, ensuring the quality delivered and efficiency of the operation. 4. Show the importance of establishing appropriate and efficient interdepartmental lines of communication. Interdepartmental communication is extremely important in eeping the effectiveness and productiveness of the running of a hotel. The housekeeping department therefore depends on a good interdepartmental line of communication in order to coordinate tasks, purchasing orders, and instructions within the department. Interdepartmental communication is the effective communication between each employee within the department, in this case the housekeeping department. Establishing an appropriate line of communication is importance as this allows the chain of command and delegation of tasks, as well as who responds to whom much simpler, and therefore there hopefully will be no mistakes and therefore efficient communication occurs.

Communication is an important factor in the running of a business, it is also important in order to keep employee’s motivated and everyone’s task clearly defined, therefore efficiency is improved and miscommunication minimalized. Also it is important that every employee knows what task they are doing, and when they are doing it, so as to not overlap somebody else, or having two people doing a simple task. Performance feedback is also a form of communication, and effective communication allows the management to relay information, as well feedback in order to improve techniques or positive comments to motivate staff. Below is an effective organisational chart in which communication is eased, for a medium sized hotel. 44 5. Create the deep cleaning procedures as required in the context. In depth cleaning, is the process that occurs usually twice a year, in a hotel room.

In is an operation where furniture is normally removed from the room, curtains and other materials are sent to be cleaned, paint may often be reapplied, and bed matrasses may be removed to be cleaned as well. Deep cleaning is a process which is required, as in ensures the hygiene and safety standard of the room is upheld, it may only done once a year as it is difficult to block a room off for an entire day or two (however long it takes) in order to complete the deep cleaning process. Therefore in busy hotels in depth cleaning is only done by sections of the room. For example, one day only the paint may be redone, or the carpet cleaned. When in depth cleaning is planned to occur, a hotel must take precautionary measures. This involves the planning of the cleaning to be taken place as well as a solution to the loss of space, e. g. a hotel floor.

An area must be cordoned off in order to stock the furniture that is being removed from the room, this usually is just another room that is not in use at the moment. There must be coordination with all parties involved so everyone is aware of their roles, either the maintenance of the furniture or the room. The hotel must also calculated the cost of needs, in terms of man power as well as hotel room revenue loss as well as the in depth cleaning in self during this process. In a small hotel with a irregular occupancy rate, it would be easier for the head house keeper to block off a couple of rooms or an entire floor in order for deep cleaning.

In a seasonal hotel such as a ski resort, at the end of the season all the hotel rooms will undergo deep cleaning. In a busy city hotel it would be impossible to block off one room, therefore only sections of the room will be done, e. g. all the curtains of the rooms on one floor will be cleaned in one day, or all the furniture will be maintained in one day. 45 46 Competences – Laundry 1. Justify different elements in the choice of hotel linen Housekeeping department plays one of the most crucial roles in the operation of a hotel since it contributes the second most expenses; hence, selecting the right linen is important to ensure the efficiency of the housekeeping department.

This part of the portfolio will analyse the elements needed to select the correct linen for different functions. Linen is the most important recycled inventory item that demands the highest budget. There are five main criteria that need to be taken into consideration colour, the pattern, texture, comfort and strength. The strength of linen relates to the type and the closeness of weave and fibre. Synthetic fibre such as polyester has more strength than the natural ones such as cotton and wool, usually the combination of synthetic and natural fibre becomes more widely accepted in hotel industry since it gives comfort, heat, strength, for instance: bed-sheet which is made of cotton/polyester.

The second criterion is laundering which is the key that determines the overall cost for linens. Synthetic fibres require lower temperature and shorter cycles thus less expensive. This may allow more budgets distributed in other departments to increase the overall efficiency of hotel’s operation. However, natural fabrics are more preferable for guests. The third criterion relates to the comfort. This is based on the softness and weight of the cloth. The softer the fabric, the more pleasant it is for the customer. Cotton has high absorbency thus more comfortable but the conflict is that it has higher cost. The fourth criterion is the colour of the fabric. This factor determines the aesthetic and pleasure for the customers.

Most hotels prefer white linens since there is less need for colour maintenance. In addition, the customers also prefer white as it appears majestic and elegant. The colours chosen should also be easily available when more stocks are required. 47 The fifth criterion is pattern and texture. This again refers to the comfort, neatness of the organisation. Another concern is that as for texture, a more open texture collects more dust and dirt. There are other criteria such as thermal insulation, shrinkage and flameretardant. The choice of linen contributes a big role to the costs; therefore the right linen must be selected for the correct usage depending on its characteristics 2.

Interpret a linen inventory and demonstrate its impact on daily operations Linen inventory is the most vital part of the housekeeping department because linen is used daily in the maintenance of all occupied rooms. It is the most important recycled inventory item and the second highest expense of a hotel. The inefficiency or lack of this department not only affects this particular department but the hotel business as a whole. It is imperative for every hotel business to have an extremely efficient and organized inventory for various reasons. Some include: available stock per par to supply all necessary areas of the hotel that require linen, staff motivation, customer satisfaction, hotel reputation, etc. Whenever linen inventory has a problem it affects all these areas and more.

For example, the under-supply of linen affects staff motivation because it adds a lot of stress and they will feel less motivated when they do not have enough material to work with. In a hotel the linens used include: sheets, pillowcases, duvet covers, towels and cloths for multi-purpose, bath mats, restaurant napkins, curtains, etc. Linen is an expensive investment and yearly many are lost to guest theft, damage, among others. It is not easy to obtain the right amount of money from management in order to have enough linen for the hotel, in fact, housekeeping usually receives barely the right amount to replace those lost linens. That is why it is highly essential that the staff receive the correct Standard Operating Procedures to follow with respect and creed.

By teaching the staff the importance of linen stock, it increases their motivation because with respect comes reward of their hard work, which eventually results in an increase of customer satisfaction. 48 3. Specify the optimal capacity of the equipment in an OPL and explain the mechanism to reach the result. An OPL is the abbreviated term for an On Premises Laundry. An OPL is a method of laundry management that requires heavy initial investment but over time can prove cost effective in comparison to outsourcing/contracted laundries through minimizing wastage and retaining capital (i. e. machines/equipment etc). The optimal capacity of an OPL is the point at which a laundry is maximizing the use of its machines available capacity without having excess capacity or requiring more. Achieving optimal capacity requires good workflow.

When calculating the optimal capacity of an OPL several important factors must be taken into consideration such as – • • • • • • • • • The quantity of linen the hotel uses per day The different types of linen Occupancy rates (maximum – to allow for unforeseen demand) The number of hours per day the machine operates (efficiently) The number of days per week Price and quality of the equipment Dependence and quality of outsourcing companies and suppliers A 30% security margin Forecast for the coming year The costs of operating an OPL are calculated per occupied room. These figures take into account the linen requirements of all the departments in the hotel however it does not specify which departments are costing more than others.

Below is an example of how to calculate the capacity of an OPL (taken from given example) – 1. What should the capacity of washing be if 320 kg linen has to be washed? 320kg x 1. 3 = 460kg 2. As an average, a hotel uses 550 kg of linen per day. The laundry operates 5 days a week. What should the daily washing capacity of this laundry be? 550kg x 1. 3 x 7 / 5 = 1001kg 3. The laundry in the previous question is open 8 hours per day. The average 49 washing cycle lasts 80 minutes. How many cycles could the washing machine handle during a day? 8h x 60min / 80min = 6 cycles today 4. By using your answer in question 2, what should the washing capacity per cycle be? 1001kg / 6cycles = 166kg capacity per cycle 5.

Your answer in question 4 represents 100% of one washing cycle. 40% is bed linen, 30% is bathroom linen, 20% is restaurant linen and 10% represents washable uniforms and cleaning cloths. As these types of linen cannot be washed together in the same washing machine, what should the capacity of each machine be? 40% =67kg 30% =50kg 20% =33kg 10%= 17kg (1×6, 1×11) 6. For which reasons, can the linen in the previous question not be washed together in the same machine? Different departments, different fabrics, different colors, different degrees of soil, different temperature. 7. The cycle of the tumble dryer lasts 30 minutes. What should the capacity of this machine be? 80 min / 30 min = 16 cycles. 300kg bathroom linen + 50kg cloths (5%) = 350kg / 16 cycles = 22kg (= 1×19 + 1x3kg) 50 4. Evaluate pros and cons of OPL and outsourcing operations and explain the costing Outsourcing is a contract-based agreement between a hotel and a dedicated laundry specialist that specifies the rate of laundering different articles of linen, the time taken for laundering, the cost per kilo and so on. Contract laundries are a good option if the hotel does not want to make a heavy investment. Advantages to the hotel of outsourcing include – • • • No need for initial investment (capital) No need for training for expertise for equipment No labour costs

However, on the other hand outsourcing lacks long-term efficiency because the finance spent is not recuperated in capital over time. Some of the disadvantages that lead to this long-term inefficiency are – • • • • • Little to no control over standards Delivery and collection issues and delays More pars required because a complete laundry cycle requires more time More susceptible to lost items and stock Special requests and off peak work costs extra Alternatively an on premises laundry (OPL) managed by the hotels management or on contract can provide its own unique set of pros and cons. More care is taken while laundering in house since it is the direct responsibility of the hotel.

There are fewer chances of lost inventory and the single laundry cycle takes much less time using the OPL system. Other positive factors include – • • • Is capital asset (equipment, etc) Less stock is required due to quicker cycle Can cover emergency requirements With that said, OPL’s come with their own set of issues to be considered, such as – • • • • Significant initial investment High labour costs Expertise and specialist technical skills are required Significant maintenance, repairs and overhead costs. 51 An important factor to consider is that a contingency plan must be made in case of equipment failure or such unforseen problems that could lead to delays etc.

The amount spent on the initial investment for an OPL should not exceed 30% of the total operating costs during this 10-year period. 5. Evaluate the impact that different cleaning control methods have on guest and staff comfort – When applying cleaning control methods, it will benefit the guest more than the staff if applied correctly. In reality, these methods are assigned to increase customer satisfaction and not particularly staff motivation. Although, if done efficiently, it can impact the staff’s attitude due to the organization and consideration of staff when conducting these methods. Ultimately, hotel businesses should strive to achieve equality of contentment for both the guests and the staff.

It is possible to reach that equality if the management puts enough effort to provide incentive to the staff in order to, as a result, achieve the optimum comfort of the guests. The purposes of the cleaning control methods are: cleanliness, disposition of furniture, lighting, proper equipment function. The different methods such as “systematic checking”, which is when a supervisor checks the rooms cleaned by the guest room attendants; and “spot checking”, which is when the room attendant checks herself and the supervisor checks some rooms randomly, are examples of how all these purposes come together. It is also an eminent archetype of how it is possible to ensure staff motivation while exceeding expectations of guests.

In the second method, giving more independence for the guest room attendant shows respect and trust, which makes them more confident and that leads to more effort. “Room inspections” and “quality standard controls” are examples of controls conducted by the management or executive housekeepers on a seasonal basis. This further reinforces the idea of reaching the maximum level of comfort for the staff and guests as well as improving the hotel’s image and reputation. 52 Stewarding Select different professional equipment used in stewarding, -­? In line with the given information during class Class notes in line with the power point presentation from Ms. Cornaz (practical week): 1. What criteria are decisive when choosing a professional dishwasher? Staff numbers • Type of material • Budget • Size of establishment • Type of establishment • Number of covers • How many pieces each customer will use (e. g. we minimum 3 times more in fine dining like glasses or cutlery) • Cost of energy • Water consumption • Time • Maintenance • Leasing possibilities 2. What are the consequences of an over size selected dishwasher? -­? Investment too high -­? Loss of energy -­? Consumption of water and detergent too high 3. What are the consequences of an under size selected dishwasher? -­? Too much stock put aside waiting to be washed -­? Difficult working conditions -­? More stress -­? More possibility of breakage -­? More tableware equipment necessary -­? Difficult to maintain a high level of hygiene -­?

Takes too long to wash everything, therefore longer working hours that cost more. The four main different types of professional dishwashers are: • • The Front Door dishwasher The hood dishwasher 53 • • The Rack Conveyor dishwasher The Flight dishwasher The Front Door dishwasher – Capacity: 20-40 racks per hour – Can usually only do 1 rack at a time – Price: CHF 5,000 – This professional dishwasher is mainly used for glasses. – Very common in bars. The Hood dishwasher – Capacity: 40-60 racks per hour -Can usually do 2 racks at a time – Price range: CHF 15,00030,000 – Possibility of pre-wash with the hand shower is necessary. – Usually used for glasses, trays and cutlery, but can be used for almost anything. 54

The Rack Conveyor dishwasher – Capacity: 80-200 racks per hour – Price range: From CHF 50,000 – Can prewash, wash, rinse and dry. -They tend to have different speed options. – One of the best and most professional dishwashers. The Flight dishwasher – Capacity: 2,000-7,000 plates per hour. – Price range: More than CHF 50,000. – Here the plates are placed on a finger conveyor belt. – A Hobart Brand Manage the stock of tableware in an establishment: Class Notes: 1. What are the main advantages for an establishment of having silverware equipment? -­? -­? -­? -­? Prestige of the establishment Tradition Expectations of some customers Equipment length of life 2.

What are the main disadvantages for an establishment of having silverware equipment? -­? -­? -­? Maintenance costs Frequent pilferage Costly repairs 55 -­? -­? Weight of the cutlery Old-fashioned shape 3. What are the various possibilities in a professional context for the maintenance of silverware? -­? -­? -­? The Vinegar and the cooking salt The aluminium sheet and the bicarbonate The Burnishing machine The Burnishing machine: the steel balls harden the silver and restore the original shine of the silverware. Tableware: the dishes, utensils, and glassware used for serving and eating meals at a table. Since this stock is essential in the running of an establishment, it is important to manage the stock appropriately.

To do this, it is wise to create an inventory. This is due to: a) Keeping track in case of eventual breakage b) Predicting needs for future c) General knowledge of amount of stock Breakages: a big problem that happens in every establishment. You have to set yourself a limit.

References 1. http://www. bafu. admin. ch/abfall/01495/01498/01505/index. html? lang=en. (kein Datum). Abgerufen am 29. June 2010 von http://www. bafu. admin. ch. 2. http://www. parisma-exports. com/company. html. (kein Datum). Abgerufen am 29. June 2010 von http://www. parisma-exports. com 3. Raghubalan, S. , ; Raghubalan, G. (2009). Hotel:Housekeeping Operations and Management (2nd ed. ). 56

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