Definition: A washing machine or washer is a machine designed to wash laundry, such as clothing, towels and sheets. The term is mostly applied only to machines that use water as the primary cleaning solution, as opposed to dry cleaning (which uses alternative cleaning fluids, and is performed by specialist businesses) or even ultrasonic cleaners. II. HISTORY To clean clothing it is necessary to rub and flex the cloth to break apart solids and help the soap penetrate.
At first this was done by pounding or rubbing the clothing with rocks in a river, and later developed into the corrugated wash board. In Roman times a person would whiten clothing by rubbing it against a rock while letting soap lay on it. The soap was made of animal fat. Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the drudgery of this scrubbing and rubbing process by providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing. The earliest machines were often hand-operated.
As electricity was not commonly available until at least 1930, these early machines were often operated by a low-speed single-cylinder hit and miss gasoline engine. Because water usually had to be heated on a fire for washing, the warm soapy water was precious and would be reused over and over, first to wash the least soiled clothing, then to wash progressively dirtier clothing. While the earliest machines were constructed from wood, later machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, to keep the water warm throughout the day’s washing.
Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was originally a separate process. The soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water. To help reduce this labour, the wringer/mangle was developed, which uses two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of the clothing. Each piece of clothing would be fed through the wringer separately. The first wringers were hand-operated, but were eventually included as a powered attachment above the washer tub.
The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next wash load. The modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, and was originally done in a separate device known as an extractor. A load of washed clothing would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, and the water spun out.  These early extractors were often dangerous to use since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently.
Many efforts have been made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, first by mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, and a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load can be manually redistributed. Many modern machines are equipped with a sealed ring of liquid that works to counteract any imbalances. III. CURRENT TRENDS The current trends in the industry has been more towards the use of semi automatic washing machines.
People have been still preferring the conventional washing machines due to cost, usage structure and consumption patterns. But lately the current trend is been changing with more numbers of consumers opting for a fully automatic washing machines, the trends shifts due to increase in number of working class people and the composition of work timings. IV. INDUSTRY ANALYSIS India has an increasingly affluent middle class population that on the back of rapid economic growth has made the country’s home appliances industry highly dynamic.
The industry has been witnessing significant growth in recent years due to several factors, including the retail boom, growing disposable incomes and availability of easy finance schemes. The Indian washing machines market is on a high growth trajectory with an overall growth of 38 percent in 2009 – 2010. This is a major increase from the 25 percent last year. The total market of washing machines industry, in 2009-10 was 3. 8 million units which is a remarkable growth from the last year’s 2. 75 million units. Market Share of Major Brands LG Electronic stands a clear market leader with a sale of over 11 lakhs units p. . Followed by Samsung, Videocon and Whirlpool. Industry Growth The washing machine industry is been growing at a rate of nearly 10%, this clearly indicates the demand for the product and the customers acceptability. The Industry growth for the current year is projected at around 50%. V. Research Methodology We have used the Survey (Questionnaire) method to analyse the buying behaviour of consumer towards washing machine. A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. VI. Analysis 1. Usage Structure This indicates that the no. of people using washing machines is because of the its convenience and the shortage of time. 2. Buying Attribute This show the typical market structure, where Price dominates an very important role in influencing the buying decision 3. Influence in Buying Decisions 4. Preferred Place of Purchase People have mostly preferred Individual brand showrooms or Multibrand outlets. The preference of MBO’s is due to its ability to compare many brands at a single place. 5. Brand Analysis
This chart indicates that LG is the most purchased brand of washing machines followed by Samsung. 6. Usage Models The trends indicates that more people are using Fully automated models than the conventional models. 7. Capacity of Washing Machines Bought The average consumption capacity has been 6 kg, irrespective of the family size. 8. Price Patterns Consumers have preferred washing machines in the price category of below `12500/- 9. Frequency of Servicing Washing machines require less servicing , and this indicates that when it comes service attribute it does not create much influence in the buying behaviour of consumers 10.
Product Awareness TV ad’s are the most popular quantum of product awareness among consumers 11. Problems in Using Washing Machines Washing machines have it its own restriction, it cannot be used to wash all type of clothes and also consumption of electricity is more. 12. Washing – A simplified Process ? The washing machines has simplified the washing process. With today working group where time is always a constraint, the usage of washing machines has been a great bonus for the consumers. Consumer Profile Analysis – Respondents . Age Profile 2. Profession 3. Marital Status 4. Family Size VII. CONCLUSION * Respondents find that washing machine is the only solution for their problem arising out of washing clothes; be it the ease of washing clothes; be it saving time or be it the rising salary of domestic helper * LG and Samsung are the favorite brands of housewife, whereas as IFB is the choice of working women * Most of the respondents consider the price of washing machine when it comes to the attribute of the washing machine and hence they refer washing machines with lesser capacity as they are cheaper as compared to the heaver counterparts * Most of the respondents are attracted by the television commercials and hence they go the company showroom as they are clearly certain of which brand they want to buy * Even families with more number of members prefer washing machine of lesser capacity as they are concerned about the price * Most of the respondents are satisfied the durability of the washing machines * Respondents always buy the latest technology available in the market which is fully automatic * A working woman is independent and does not depend on his husband to decide when and which washing machine to buy * When it comes to housewife’s, their husband play a major role in purchase decision
VIII. QUESTIONNAIRE MODEL QUESTIONNAIRE – USAGE PATTERN OF WASHING MACHINE 1) Do you use a washing machine? * Yes * No If yes, go to Question# 3 If No, go to Question# 2 2) If No, why you do not use a Washing machine? * I Cannot afford it * I Think it’s complicated to use a washing machine I think clothes do not get properly cleaned in a washing machine Go to Question# 14, Ignore questions 3-13 3) Why do you use a washing machine? * It’s easy to use * No time to wash clothes * Saves wages paid to domestic help 4) Which brand of washing machine do you use? (Please tick) * LG * SAMSUNG * WHIRLPOOL * IFB * VIDEOCON * GODREJ * ONIDA * OTHERS: Please Specify: __________________ 5) What majorly influenced you to buy this particular brand? * Price * Quality * Service * Brand Name * Off Sale 6) Who among the following people was involve in purchase decision making? * Husband * Wife * Husband and Wife * Entire Family 7) From where did you buy your washing machine? * Company showroom * Shopping Malls * Exhibitions * Electronic Showroom ) What type of washing machine do you use? * Fully automatic – Top loading * Fully automatic – Front loading * Semi Automatic – Top loading * Semi automatic – Front Loading 9) What is the capacity of your Washing machine? * 5 kg * 6kg * 7 kg * 8 kg * 9 kg * 10 kg 10) What is the price of your washing machine brand? * 5000 – 7500 * 7500 – 10000 * 10000 – 12500 * 12500 – 15000 * ;gt; 15000 11) How often do you find a need for servicing your washing machine? * Every 6 months * Once in a year * More than one year * Never serviced my washing machine in lifetime * Newly purchased my machine 12) You came to know / buy this product * TV Ad * News paper * Word of mouth * Hoardings 3) What is the difficulty in using Washing machine * Cannot wash all types of clothes * Some stains cannot be removed * Affects the quality of the cloth * Electricity Consumption 14) Do you think that washing machine has simplified your washing process? * Yes * No 15) Are you satisfied with the following attributes of the brand? a) Price * Yes * No b) Quality * Yes * No c) Brand value * Yes * No d) After sales service * Yes * No * N/A 16) Age: * 20-30 * 30-40 * 40-50 * More than 50 17) Profession: * House maker * Businesswoman * Managerial job * Student * Retired 18) Marital Status: * Single * Married 19) No. Of members in family: * 1-2 * 3-4 * 4-6 * More than 6