Starting Exports o Starting Export Introduction o Basic Planning For Export o Identifying Products For Export o Market Selection o SWOT Analysis o Registration of Exporters o Export License o Myths About Exporting o Export Sales Leads o Exporting Product Samples o Export Pricing And Costing o Understanding Foreign Exchange Rates o Appointing A Sales Agents o Export Risks Management o Packaging And Labeling Of Goods o Inspection Certificates And Quality Control o Export Documents o Custom Procedure For Export o Invisible Export o Export To SAARC o Export To CIS o Organisations Supporting Exporters Export Finance • Pre Shipment and Post Shipment Export Finance o Payment Methods In Export Import o Payment Collection Against Bills o Letter Of Credit (L/c) o Trade Documents o Pre Shipment Trade Finance o Post Shipment Finance o Forfeiting Factoring o Bank Guarantees o Transport Risk o Contract Credit Risk o Country Political Risk o Currency Risk o Export Import (Exim) Policy o Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) o Fedai Guidelines IEC • IEC – Importers Exporters Code Number Export Import Trade Terms • Incoterms How to Import • Starting Imports o Starting Import Introduction o Preliminaries for Starting Import Business o Registration of Importers o Guidelines And Rules for Import o Selecting The Overseas Exporter o Import License Import Trade Governing Bodies o Import of Samples o Finalizing The Terms of Import o Import Duties o Import Risks o Import Incentives under Special Schemes o Methods of Payment in Import Trade o Import of Personal Baggage o Import of Gifts o Import of Cars Vehicle Commercial and Non Commercial o Import of Gold And Silver by NRI o Custom Clearance of Imported Goods o Import of Drugs And Medicine o Import of Scrap And Waste Products o Import Laptops And Computers o Import Dos And Don’ts Please remember, preparing for the world of international trade is a complex process. But with the proper knowledge and strategy, you’ll soon be on your way to world wide success.
Introduction : Export in itself is a very wide concept and lot of preparations is required by an exporter before starting an export business. A key success factor in starting any export company is clear understanding and detail knowledge of products to be exported. In order to be a successful in exporting one must fully research its foreign market rather than try to tackle every market at once. The exporter should approach a market on a priority basis. Overseas design and product must be studied properly and considered carefully. Because there are specific laws dealing with International trade and foreign business, it is imperative that you familiarize yourself with state, federal, and international laws before starting your export business.
Price is also an important factor. So, before starting an export business an exporter must consider the price offered to the buyers. As the selling price depends on sourcing price, try to avoid unnecessary middlemen who only add cost but no value. It helps a lot on cutting the transaction cost and improving the quality of the final products. The Government of Indian has defined it, in very simple terms; export may be defined as the selling of goods to a foreign country. However, As per Section 2 (e) of the Indian Foreign Trade Act (1992), the term export may be defined as ‘an act of taking out of India any goods by land, sea or air and with proper transaction of money”.
Exporting a product is a profitable method that helps to expand the business and reduces the dependence in the local market. It also provides new ideas, management practices, marketing techniques, and ways of competing, which is not possible in the domestic market. Even as an owner of a domestic market, an individual businessman should think about exporting. Research shows that, on average, exporting companies are more profitable than their non-exporting counterparts. Basic planning for Export: Introduction Before starting an export, an individual should evaluate his company’s “export readiness”. Further planning for export should be done only, if the company’s assets are good enough for export.
There are several methods to evaluate the export potential of a company. The most common method is to examine the success of a product in domestic market. It is believed that if the products has survived in the domestic market, there is a good chance that it will also be successful in international market, at least those where similar needs and conditions exist. One should also evaluate the unique features of a product. If those features are hard to duplicate abroad, then it is likely that you will be successful overseas. A unique product may have little competition and demand for it might be quite high. Once a businessman decides to sell his products, the next step is to developing a proper export plan.
While planning an export strategy, it is always better to develop a simple, practical and flexible export plan for profitable and sustainable export business. As the planners learn more about exporting and your company’s competitive position, the export plan will become more detailed and complete. Objective: The main objective of a typical export plan is to: • Identifies what you want to achieve from exporting. • Lists what activities you need to undertake to achieve those objectives. • Includes mechanisms for reviewing and measuring progress. • Helps you remain focused on your goals. For a proper export planning following questions need to be answered. 1.
Which products are selected for export development? 2. What modifications, if any, must be made to adapt them for overseas markets? 3. Which countries are targeted for sales development? 4. In each country, what is the basic customer profile? 5. What marketing and distribution channels should be used to reach customers? 6. What special challenges pertain to each market (competition, cultural differences, import controls, etc. ), and what strategy will be used to address them? 7. How will the product’s export sale price be determined? 8. What specific operational steps must be taken and when? 9. What will be the time frame for implementing each element of the plan? 10.
What personnel and company resources will be dedicated to exporting? 11. What will be the cost in time and money for each element? 12. How will results be evaluated and used to modify the plan? From the start, the plan should be viewed and written as a management tool, not as a static document. Objectives in the plan should be compared with actual results to measure the success of different strategies. The company should not hesitate to modify the plan and make it more specific as new information and experience are gained. Some “Do’s and Don’ts of Export Planning DO ensure your key staff members are ‘signed on’ to the Plan. DO seek good advice – and test your Export Plan with advisers.
DON’T create a bulky document that remains static. DO review the Export Plan regularly with your staff and advisers. DO assign responsibility to staff for individual tasks. DON’T use unrealistic timelines. Review them regularly – they often slip. DO create scenarios for changed circumstances – look at the “what ifs” for changes in the market environment from minor to major shifts in settings, e. g. change of government, new import taxes. DO develop an integrated timeline that draws together the activities that make up the Export Plan. DO make sure that you have the human and financial resources necessary to execute the Export Plan. Ensure existing customers are not neglected.
Identifying Export Product: A key factor in any export business is clear understanding and detail knowledge of products to be exported. The selected product must be in demand in the countries where it is to be exported. Before making any selection, one should also consider the various government policies associated with the export of a particular product. Whether companies are exporting first time or have been in export trade for a long time – it is better for both the groups to be methodical and systematic in identifying a right product. It’s not sufficient to have all necessary data ‘in your mind’ – but equally important to put everything on paper and in a structured manner.
Once this job is done, it becomes easier to find the gaps in the collected information and take necessary corrective actions. There are products that sell more often than other product in international market. It is not very difficult to find them from various market research tools. However, such products will invariably have more sellers and consequently more competition and fewer margins. On the other hand – a niche product may have less competition and higher margin – but there will be far less buyers. Fact of the matter is – all products sell, though in varying degrees and there are positive as well as flip sides in whatever decision you take – popular or niche product.
Key Factors in Product Selection • The product should be manufactured or sourced with consistent standard quality, comparable to your competitors. ISO or equivalent certification helps in selling the product in the international market. • If possible, avoid products which are monopoly of one or few suppliers. If you are the manufacturer – make sure sufficient capacity is available in-house or you have the wherewithal to outsource it at short notice. Timely supply is a key success factor in export business, • The price of the exported product should not fluctuate very often – threatening profitability to the export business. • Strictly check the government policies related to the export of a particular product.
Though there are very few restrictions in export – it is better to check regulatory status of your selected product. • Carefully study the various government incentive schemes and tax exemption like duty drawback and DEPB. • Import regulation in overseas markets, especially tariff and non-tariff barriers. Though a major non-tariff barrier (textile quota) has been abolished there are still other tariff and non-tariff barriers. If your product attracts higher duty in target country – demand obviously falls. • Registration/Special provision for your products in importing country. This is especially applicable for processed food and beverages, drugs and chemicals. Seasonal vagaries of selected products as some products sell in summer, while others in winter. Festive season is also important factor, for example certain products are more sellable only during Christmas. • Keep in mind special packaging and labeling requirements of perishable products like processed food and dairy products. • Special measures are required for transportation of certain products, which may be bulky or fragile or hazardous or perishable. Market Selection: After evaluation of company’s key capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, the next step is to start evaluating opportunities in promising export markets. It involves the screening of large lists of countries in order to arrive at a short list of four to five.
The shorting method should be done on the basis of various political, economic and cultural factors that will potentially affect export operations in chosen market. Some factors to consider include: 1. Geographical Factors o Country, state, region, o Time zones, o Urban/rural location logistical considerations e. g. freight and distribution channels 2. Economic, Political, and Legal Environmental Factors o Regulations including quarantine, o Labelling standards, o Standards and consumer protection rules, o Duties and taxes 3. Demographic Factors o Age and gender, o Income and family structure, o Occupation, o Cultural beliefs, o Major competitors, o Similar products, o Key brands. 4.
Market Characteristics o Market size, o Availability of domestic manufacturers, o Agents, distributors and suppliers. Foreign Market Research: Understanding a market’s key characteristics requires gathering a broad range of primary and secondary research, much of which you can source without cost from the internet. Primary research, such as population figures, product compliance standards, statistics and other facts can be obtained without any cost from international organizations like United Nations (UN) and World Trade Organizations (WTO). Analysis of export statistics over a period of several years helps an individual to determine whether the market for a particular product is growing or shrinking.
Secondary research, such as periodicals, studies, market reports and surveys, can be found through government websites, international organisations, and commercial market intelligence firms. Foreign Market Selection Process Step 1: Gather Information on a Broad Range of Markets Market selection process requires a broad range of information depending upon the products or services to be exported, which includes: • The demand for product/service. • The size of the potential audience. • Whether the target audience can afford product. • What the regulatory issues are that impact on exports of product. • Ease of access to this market – proximity/freight. Are there appropriate distribution channels for product or service? • The environment for doing business – language, culture, politics etc. • Is it financially viable to export to selected market? You can gather much of the first step information yourself from a variety of sources at little or no cost. Sources of information include: • Talking to colleagues and other exporters. • Trade and Enterprise – web site, publications, call centre. • The library. • The Internet. Step 2: Research a Selection of Markets In-Depth From the results of the first stage, narrow your selection down to three to five markets and undertake some in-depth research relating specifically to your product.
While doing so, some of the questions that may arise at this stage are: • What similar products are in the marketplace (including products that may not be similar but are used to achieve the same goal, e. g. the product in our sample matrix at the end of this document is a hair removal cream. As well as undertaking competitor research on other hair removal creams, we would also need to consider other products that are used for hair removal, i. e. razors, electrolysis, wax). • What is your point of difference? What makes your product unique? What are the key selling points for your product? • How do people obtain/use these products? • Who provides them? • Are they imported?
If so from which countries? • Is there a local manufacturer or provider? • Who would your major competitors be? What are the key brands or trade names? • What is the market’s structure and shape? • What is the market’s size? • Are there any niche markets, and if so how big are they? • Who are the major importers/stockists / distributors / agencies or suppliers? • What are the other ways to obtain sales/representation? • What are the prices or fees in different parts of the market? • What are the mark-ups at different distribution levels? • What are the import regulations, duties or taxes, including compliance and professional registrations if these apply? How will you promote your product or service if there is a lot of competition? • Are there any significant trade fairs, professional gathers or other events where you can promote your product or service? • Packaging – do you need to change metric measures to imperial; do you need to list ingredients? • Will you need to translate promotional material and packaging? • Is your branding – colours, imagery etc. , culturally acceptable? Foreign Market Selection Entry Having completed the market selection process and chosen your target market, the next step is to plan your entry strategy. There are a number of options for entering your chosen market. Most exporters initially choose to work through agents or distributors.
In the longer term, however, you may consider other options, such as taking more direct control of your market, more direct selling or promotion, or seeking alliances or agreements. SWOT Analysis. Introduction SWOT analysis is a useful method of summaries all the information generated during the export planning. SWOT stands for strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats, which helps to isolate the strong and week areas within an export strategy. SWOT also indicates the future opportunities or threats that may exist in the chosen markets and is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. To apply your own SWOT analysis, start by creating a heading for each category – ‘Strengths’, ‘Weaknesses’, ‘Opportunities’, and ‘Threats’.
Under each of these, write a list of five relevant aspects of your business and external market environment. Strengths and weaknesses apply to internal aspects of your business; opportunities and threats relate to external research. Your final analysis should help you develop short and long term business goals and action plans, and help guide your market selection process. Environmental factors internal to the company can be classified as strengths or weaknesses, and those external to the company can be classified as opportunities or threats. Strengths Business strengths are its resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive-advantage. Examples of such strengths include: •
Patents • Strong brand names. • Good reputation among customers. • Cost advantages from proprietary know-how. • Exclusive access to high grade natural resources. • Favorable access to distribution networks. Weaknesses : The absence of certain strengths may be viewed as a weakness. For example, each of the following may be considered weaknesses: • Lack of patent protection. • A weak brand name. • Poor reputation among customers. • High cost structure. • Lack of access to the best natural resources. • Lack of access to key distribution channels. Opportunities : The external environmental analysis may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth.
Some examples of such opportunities include: • An unfulfilled customer need. • Arrival of new technologies. • Loosening of regulations. • Removal of international trade barriers. Threats : Changes in the external environmental also may present threats to the firm. Some examples of such threats include: • Shifts in consumer tastes away from the firm’s products • Emergence of substitute products. • New regulations. • Increased trade barriers Successful SWOT Analysis Simple rules for successful SWOT analysis: • Be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses of the organization. • Analysis should distinguish between where the organization is today, and where it could be in the future. • Be specific. Always analyse in relation to your competition i. e. better than or worse than your competition. • Keep your SWOT short and simple. A SWOT analysis can be very subjective, and is an excellent tool for indicating the negative factors first in order to turn them into positive factors. Registration of Exporters. Registration with Reserve Bank of India (RBI) • Registration with Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) • Registration with Export Promotion Council • Registration with Commodity Boards • Registration with Income Tax Authorities Once all the research and analysis is done its time to get registered with the various government authorities.
Registration with Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Prior to 1997, it was necessary for every first time exporter to obtain IEC number from Reserve Bank of India (RBI) before engaging in any kind of export operations. But now this job is being done by DGFT. Registration with Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) For every first time exporter, it is necessary to get registered with the DGFT (Director General of Foreign Trade), Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. DGFT provide exporter a unique IEC Number. IEC Number is a ten digits code required for the purpose of export as well as import. No exporter is allowed to export his good abroad without IEC number.
However, if the goods are exported to Nepal, or to Myanmar through Indo-Myanmar boarder or to China through Gunji, Namgaya, Shipkila or Nathula ports then it is not necessary to obtain IEC number provided the CIF value of a single consignment does not exceed Indian amount of Rs. 25, 000 /-. Application for IEC number can be submitted to the nearest regional authority of DGFT. Application form which is known as “Aayaat Niryaat Form – ANF2A” can also be submitted online at the DGFT web-site: http://dgft. gov. in. While submitting an application form for IEC number, an applicant is required to submit his PAN account number. Only one IEC is issued against a single PAN number. Apart from PAN number, an applicant is also required to submit his Current Bank Account number and Bankers Certificate. A amount of Rs 1000/- is required to submit with the application fee.
This amount can be submitted in the form of a Demand Draft or payment through EFT (Electronic Fund Transfer by Nominated Bank by DGFT. Registration with Export Promotion Council Registered under the Indian Company Act, Export Promotion Councils or EPC is a non-profit organisation for the promotion of various goods exported from India in international market. EPC works in close association with the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India and act as a platform for interaction between the exporting community and the government. So, it becomes important for an exporter to obtain a registration cum membership certificate (RCMC) from the EPC.
An application for registration should be accompanied by a self certified copy of the IEC number. Membership fee should be paid in the form of cheque or draft after ascertaining the amount from the concerned EPC. The RCMC certificate is valid from 1st April of the licensing year in which it was issued and shall be valid for five years ending 31st March of the licensing year, unless otherwise specified. Registration with Commodity Boards Commodity Board is registered agency designated by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India for purposes of export-promotion and has offices in India and abroad. At present, there are five statutory Commodity Boards under the Department of Commerce.
These Boards are responsible for production, development and export of tea, coffee, rubber, spices and tobacco. Registration with Income Tax Authorities Goods exported out of the country are eligible for exemption from both Value Added Tax and Central Sales Tax. So, to get the benefit of tax exemption it is important for an exporter to get registered with the Tax Authorities. Export License. Introduction • Canalisation • Application for an Export License • Exports Free Unless Regulated Introduction An export license is a document issued by the appropriate licensing agency after which an exporter is allowed to transport his product in a foreign market.
The license is only issued after a careful review of the facts surrounding the given export transaction. Export license depends on the nature of goods to be transported as well as the destination port. So, being an exporter it is necessary to determine whether the product or good to be exported requires an export license or not. While making the determination one must consider the following necessary points: • What are you exporting? • Where are you exporting? • Who will receive your item? • What will your items will be used? Canalisation Canalisation is an important feature of Export License under which certain goods can be imported only by designated agencies.
For an example, an item like gold, in bulk, can be imported only by specified banks like SBI and some foreign banks or designated agencies. Application for an Export License To determine whether a license is needed to export a particular commercial product or service, an exporter must first classify the item by identifying what is called ITC (HS) Classifications. Export license are only issued for the goods mentioned in the Schedule 2 of ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items. A proper application can be submitted to the Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT). The Export Licensing Committee under the Chairmanship of Export Commissioner considers such applications on merits for issue of export licenses.
Exports Free unless regulated The Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) from time to time specifies through a public notice according to which any goods, not included in the ITC (HS) Classifications of Export and Import items may be exported without a license. Such terms and conditions may include Minimum Export Price (MEP), registration with specified authorities, quantitative ceilings and compliance with other laws, rules, regulations. Myths About Exporting Products. Introduction • 1. Myth: I Am Too Small to Export • 2. Myth: I Cannot Afford to Export • 3. Myth: I Cannot Compete With Large Overseas Companies • 4. Myth: Exporting is Too Risky • 5. Myth: Exporting is Too Complicated Introduction : Many first time exporters or firm managers believe the myths about exporting that it’s too difficult or too costly to sell their product in a foreign country.
But given below the some of the important facts that will help a first time exporter to clear all his misconceptions. 1. Myth: I Am Too Small to Export Only large firms with name recognition, abundant resources, and formal export departments can export successfully. : It is true that large firms typically account for far more total exports but the real fact is that vast majority of exporting firms in most countries are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). 2. Myth: I Cannot Afford to Export : I don’t have the money for hiring new employees, for marketing abroad, or expanding production for new business. There are various low-cost ways to market and promote abroad, handle new export orders, and finance receivables.
This does not require hiring new staff or setting up an export department. At little or no cost for example, you can receive product and country market research, worldwide market exposure, generate trade leads, and find qualified overseas distributors through various Commodity Boards and Export Promotion Councils. 3. Myth: I Cannot Compete With Large Overseas Companies My products are unknown and my prices are too high for foreign markets. If the product is known in the domestic market then it’s a plus point but even an unknown product can be exported in a foreign market. Low demand of a product doesn’t indicates that it will be also not accepted in the international market.
Price is also an important, but it is not the only selling point. Other competitive factors play a large role including quality, service, and consumer taste – these may override price. Also prices of a product may not be relatively high in countries with a strong currency, as in the European Union. 4. Myth: Exporting is Too Risky I might not get paid. Selling anywhere has risks even in the domestic market, but it can be reduced with reasonable precautions. To assure you get paid, use Letters of Credit (L/Cs). A L/C is a letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer’s payment to a seller will be received on time and for the correct amount. In the event hat the buyer is unable to make payment on the purchase, the bank will be required to cover the full or remaining amount of the purchase. Proper documentation can minimize the risk associated with the export business. 5. Myth: Exporting is Too Complicated Exporting is too complicated; I won’t understand the laws and documentation requirements. You don’t need to be an expert to export. There is an abundance of resources available online that helps the first time exporter about all ins and outs of the export operations. Government of India and its associated agencies like Commodity Boards and Export Promotion Councils also provide guidelines to the exporters. Export Sales Leads. _______________________________________ Introduction • Generating Sales Leads • Qualifying sales leads • Sending Acknowledgement • Responding with quality products • Follow Ups Introduction Export Sales leads are initial contacts a seller or exporter seeks in order to finalize a deal or agreement for export of goods and are considered as the first step in the entire sales process. After getting the first lead, a company should respond to that lead in a very carefully manner in order to convert that opportunity into real export deal. Generating Sales Leads Sales leads can be generated either through a word-of-mouth or internet research or trade show participation.
Qualifying sales leads As the buyer is far away and sometimes communication process can be difficult, so it’s always better to make an extra effort to understand the exact need of the customer. Sending Acknowledgement After receiving a lead it is quite important to acknowledge the enquirer within 48 hours of receiving the enquiry either through e-mail or fax. Acknowledgement also gives an option to provide further detail about the product or to make an enquiry about the buyer. Responding with quality products Quality products strengthen buyer seller relationship, so it’s always better to provide quality products to the buyers. Follow Ups Always try to be in touch with the buyer or customer. For this purpose one can ask a phone number and a convenient time to call.
It is always better to make the call in the presence of an Export Adviser. One should avoid high pressure call during follow up. Exporting Product Samples. ________________________________________ Introduction • Sending Export Samples from India • Export Samples against Payment • Export of Garment Samples • Export of Software Introduction The foreign customer may ask for product samples before placing a confirmed order. So, it is essential that the samples are made from good quality raw materials and after getting an order, the subsequent goods are made with the same quality product. Extra care should be taken in order to avoid the risk associated in sending a costly product sample for export.
Secrecy is also an important factor while sending a sample, especially if there is a risk of copying the original product during export. Before exporting a product sample an exporter should also know the Government policy and procedures for export of samples. While sending a product sample to an importer, it is always advised to send samples by air mail to avoid undue delay. However, if the time is not an issue then the product sample can also be exported through proper postal channel, which is cheaper as compared to the air mail. Sending Export Samples from India Samples having permanent marking as “sample not for sale” are allowed freely for export without any limit.
However, in such cases where indelible marking is not available, the samples may be allowed for a value not exceeding US $ 10,000, per consignment. For export of sample products which are restricted for export as mentioned in the ITC (HS) Code, an application may be made to the office of Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT). Export of samples to be sent by post parcel or air freight is further divided into following 3 categories, and under each category an exporter is required to fulfill certain formalities which are mentioned below : 1. Samples of value up to Rs. 10, 000- It is necessary for the exporter to file a simple declaration that the sample does not involve foreign exchange and its value is less than Rs. 10,000. 2. Samples of value less than Rs. 5,000- It is necessary for the exporter to obtain a value certificate from the authorised dealer in foreign exchange (i. e. your bank). For this purpose, an exporter should submit a commercial invoice certifying thereon that the parcel does not involve foreign exchange and the aggregate value of the samples exported by you does not exceed Rs. 25,000 in the current calendar year. 3. Samples of value more than Rs. 25,000- It becomes necessary for the exporter to obtain GR/PP waiver from the Reserve Bank of India Export Samples against Payment A sample against which an overseas buyer agrees to make payment is exported in the same manner as the normal goods are exported. Sample can also be carried personally by you hile travelling abroad provided these are otherwise permissible or cleared for export as explained earlier. However, in case of precious jewellery or stone the necessary information should be declared to the custom authorities while leaving the country and obtain necessary endorsement on export certificate issued by the Jewelry Appraiser of the Customs. Export of Garment Samples As per the special provision made for the export of garment samples, only those exporters are allowed to send samples that are registered with the Apparel export Promotion Council (AEPC). Similarly, for export of wool it is necessary for the exporter to have registration with the Woolen Export Promotion Council.
Export of Software All kinds electronic and computer software product samples can only be exported abroad, if the exporter dealing with these products is registered with the Electronics and Computer Software Export Promotion Council (ESC) Similarly samples of other export products can be exported abroad under the membership of various Export Promotion Councils (EPC) of India. Export Pricing And Costing. ________________________________________ • Introduction • Determining Export Pricing • Export Costing Introduction Pricing and costing are two different things and an exporter should not confuse between the two. Price is what an exporter offer to a customer on particular products while cost is what an exporter pay for manufacturing the same product. Export pricing is the most important factor in for promoting export and facing international trade competition.
It is important for the exporter to keep the prices down keeping in mind all export benefits and expenses. However, there is no fixed formula for successful export pricing and is differ from exporter to exporter depending upon whether the exporter is a merchant exporter or a manufacturer exporter or exporting through a canalising agency. Determining Export Pricing Export Pricing can be determine by the following factors: • Range of products offered. • Prompt deliveries and continuity in supply. • After-sales service in products like machine tools, consumer durables. • Product differentiation and brand image. • Frequency of purchase. • Presumed relationship between quality and price. Specialty value goods and gift items. • Credit offered. • Preference or prejudice for products originating from a particular source. • Aggressive marketing and sales promotion. • Prompt acceptance and settlement of claims. • Unique value goods and gift items. Export Costing Export Costing is basically Cost Accountant’s job. It consists of fixed cost and variable cost comprising various elements. It is advisable to prepare an export costing sheet for every export product. As regards quoting the prices to the overseas buyer, the same are quoted in the following internationally accepted terms which are commonly known as Incoterm. Understanding of Foreign Exchange Rates. _______________________________________ Introduction • Spot Exchange Rate • Forward Exchange Rate • Method of Quoting Exchange Rates • Exchange Rate Regime • Forward Exchange Contracts • Benefits of Forward Exchange Contract • Foreign Currency Options • Flexible Forwards • Currency Swap • Foreign Exchange Markets Introduction An exporter without any commercial contract is completely exposed of foreign exchange risks that arises due to the probability of an adverse change in exchange rates. Therefore, it becomes important for the exporter to gain some knowledge about the foreign exchange rates, quoting of exchange rates and various factors determining the exchange rates. In this section, we have discussed various topics related to foreign exchange rates in detail.
Spot Exchange Rate Also known as “benchmark rates”, “straightforward rates” or “outright rates”, spot rates represent the price that a buyer expects to pay for a foreign currency in another currency. Settlement in case of spot rate is normally done within one or two working days. Forward Exchange Rate The forward exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is quoted and traded today but for delivery and payment on a specific future date. Method of Quoting Exchange Rates There are two methods of quoting exchange rates: • Direct Quotation: In this system, variable units of home currency equivalent to a fixed unit of foreign currency are quoted. For example: US $ 1= Rs. 42. 75 • Indirect Quotation: In this system, variable units of foreign currency as equivalent to a fixed unit of home currency are quoted. For example: US $ 2. 392= Rs. 00 Before 1993, banks were required to quote all the rates on indirect basis as foreign currency equivalent to RS. 100 but after 1993 banks are quoting rates on direct basis only. Exchange Rate Regime The exchange rate regime is a method through which a country manages its currency in respect to foreign currencies and the foreign exchange market. • Fixed Exchange Rate A fixed exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currency’s value is matched to the value of another single currency or any another measure of value, such as gold. A fixed exchange rate is also known as pegged exchange rate. A currency that uses a fixed exchange rate is known as a fixed currency.
The opposite of a fixed exchange rate is a floating exchange rate. • Floating Exchange Rate A Floating Exchange Rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currency’s value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. A Floating Exchange Rate or a flexible exchange rate and is opposite to the fixed exchange rate. • Linked Exchange Rate A linked exchange rate system is used to equlise the exchange rate of a currency to another. Linked Exchange Rate system is implemented in Hong Kong to stabilise the exchange rate between the Hong Kong dollar (HKD) and the United States dollar (USD).
Forward Exchange Contracts A Forward Exchange Contract is a contract between two parties (the Bank and the customer). One party contract to sell and the other party contracts to buy, one currency for another, at an agreed future date, at a rate of exchange which is fixed at the time the contract is entered into. Benefits of Forward Exchange Contract • Contracts can be arranged to either buy or sell a foreign currency against your domestic currency, or against another foreign currency. • Available in all major currencies. • Available for any purpose such as trade, investment or other current commitments. • Forward exchange contracts must be completed by the customer. A customer requiring more flexibility may wish to consider Foreign Currency Options.
Foreign Currency Options Foreign Currency Options is a hedging tool that gives the owner the right to buy or sell the indicated amount of foreign currency at a specified price before a specific date. Like forward contracts, foreign currency options also eliminate the spot market risk for future transactions. A currency option is no different from a stock option except that the underlying asset is foreign exchange. The basic premises remain the same: the buyer of option has the right but no obligation to enter into a contract with the seller. Therefore the buyer of a currency option has the right, to his advantage, to enter into the specified contract.
Flexible Forwards Flexible Forward is a part of foreign exchange that has been developed as an alternative to forward exchange contracts and currency options. The agreement for flexible forwards is always singed between two parties (the ‘buyer’ of the flexible forward and the ‘seller’ of the flexible forward) to exchange a specified amount (the ‘face value’) of one currency for another currency at a foreign exchange rate that is determined in accordance with the mechanisms set out in the agreement at an agreed time and an agreed date (the ‘expiry time’ on the ‘expiry date’). The exchange then takes place approximately two clear business days later on the ‘delivery date’).
Currency Swap A currency swap which is also known as cross currency swap is a foreign exchange agreement between two countries to exchange a given amount of one currency for another and, after a specified period of time, to give back the original amounts swapped. Foreign Exchange Markets The foreign exchange markets are usually highly liquid as the world’s main international banks provide a market around-the-clock. The Bank for International Settlements reported that global foreign exchange market turnover daily averages in April was $650 billion in 1998 (at constant exchange rates) and increased to $1. 9 trillion in 2004 . Trade in global currency markets has soared over the past three years and is now worth more than $3. 2 trillion a day. The biggest foreign exchange trading centre is London, followed by New York and Tokyo. Appointing a Sales Agent. _______________________________________ • Introduction • Merits of Appointing a Sales Agent • Demerits of Appointing a Sales Agent • Important Points While Appointing a Sales Agent • Some source of Information on Agents • Agent v Distributor Introduction Selling a product through an overseas agent is a very successful strategy. Sales agents are available on commission basis for any sales they make. The key benefit of using an overseas sales agent is that you get the advantage of their extensive knowledge of the target market. Sales agent also provides support to an exporter in the matter of transportation, reservation of accommodation, appointment with the government as and when required. It is, therefore, essential that one should very carefully select overseas agent.
Merits of Appointing a Sales Agent There are various types of merits associated with appointed a sales agent for export purpose are as follow: • Sales agent avoids the recruitment, training, time and payroll costs of using own employees to enter an overseas market. • An agent is a better option to identify and exploit opportunities in overseas export market. • An agent already have solid relationships with potential buyers, hence it saves the time of the exporter to build own contacts. • An agent allows an exporter to maintain more control over matters such as final price and brand image – compared with the other intermediary option of using a distributor.
Demerits of Appointing a Sales Agent There are also certain disadvantages associated with appointing a sales agent for export purpose which are as follows: • After-sales service can be difficult when selling through an intermediary. • There is a risk for exporter to lose some control over marketing and brand image. Important Points While Appointing a Sales Agent: Appointing right sales agent not only enhance the profit of an exporter but also avoid any of risks associated with a sales agent. So it becomes important for an exporter to take into consideration following important points before selection an appropriate sales agent for his product. • Size of the agent’s company. • Date of foundation of the agent’s company. • Company’s ownership and control. Company’s capital, funds, available and liabilities. • Name, age and experience of the company’s senior executives. • Number, age and experience of the company’s salesman. • Oher agencies that the company holds, including those of competing products and turn-over of each. • Length of company’s association with other principal. • New agencies that the company obtained or lost during the past year. • Company’s total annual sales and the trends in its sales in recent years. • Company’s sales coverage, overall and by area. • Number of sales calls per month and per salesman by company staff. • Any major obstacles expected in the company’s sales growth. Agent’s capability to provide sales promotion and advertising services • Agent’s transport facilities and warehousing capacity. • Agent’s rate of commission; payment terms required. • References on the agents from banks, trade associations and major buyers. Some source of Information on Agents is: • Government Departments Trade Associations. • Chambers of Commerce. • Banks. • Independent Consultants. • Export Promotion Councils. • Advertisement Abroad. Agent v Distributor There is a fundamental legal difference between agents and distributors and an exporter should not confuse between the two. An agent negotiates on the behalf of an exporter nd may be entitled to create a legal relationship between exporter and the importer A distributor buys goods on its own account from exporter and resells those products to customers. It is the distributor which has the sale contract with the customer not the exporter. In the case of distributor, an exporter is free from any kinds of risks associated with the finance. Expot Risk Management. ________________________________________ Introduction • Credit Risk • Poor Quality Risk • Transportation Risks • Logistic Risk • Legal Risks • Political Risk • Unforeseen Risks • Exchange Rate Risks • Export Risk Management Plan • Export Risk Mitigation Introduction Export pricing is the most important factor in for promoting export and facing international trade competition.
It is important for the exporter to keep the prices down keeping in mind all export benefits and expenses. However, there is no fixed formula for successful export pricing and is differ from exporter to exporter depending upon whether the exporter is a merchant exporter or a manufacturer exporter or exporting through a canalising agency. Like any business transaction, risk is also associated with good to be exported in an overseas market. Export is risk in international trade is quite different from risks involve in domestic trade. So, it becomes important to all the risks related to export in international trade with an extra measure and with a proper risk management.
The various types of export risks involve in an international trade are as follow: Credit Risk Sometimes because of large distance, it becomes difficult for an exporter to verify the creditworthiness and reputation of an importer or buyer. Any false buyer can increase the risk of non-payment, late payment or even straightforward fraud. So, it is necessary for an exporter to determine the creditworthiness of the foreign buyer. An exporter can seek the help of commercial firms that can provide assistance in credit-checking of foreign companies. Poor Quality Risk Exported goods can be rejected by an importer on the basis of poor quality. So it is always recommended to properly check the goods to be exported.
Sometimes buyer or importer raises the quality issue just to put pressure on an exporter in order to try and negotiate a lower price. So, it is better to allow an inspection procedure by an independent inspection company before shipment. Such an inspection protects both the importer and the exporter. Inspection is normally done at the request of importer and the costs for the inspection are borne by the importer or it may be negotiated that they be included in the contract price. Alternatively, it may be a good idea to ship one or two samples of the goods being produced to the importer by an international courier company. The final product produced to the same standards is always difficult to reduce.
Transportation Risks With the movement of goods from one continent to another, or even within the same continent, goods face many hazards. There is the risk of theft, damage and possibly the goods not even arriving at all. Logistic Risk The exporter must understand all aspects of international logistics, in particular the contract of carriage. This contract is drawn up between a shipper and a carrier (transport operator). For this an exporter may refer to Incoterms 2000, ICC publication. Legal Risks International laws and regulations change frequently. Therefore, it is important for an exporter to drafts a contract in conjunction with a legal firm, thereby ensuring that the exporter’s interests are taken care of.
Political Risk Political risk arises due to the changes in the government policies or instability in the government sector. So it is important for an exporter to be constantly aware of the policies of foreign governments so that they can change their marketing tactics accordingly and take the necessary steps to prevent loss of business and investment. Unforeseen Risks Unforeseen risk such as terrorist attack or a natural disaster like an earthquake may cause damage to exported products. It is therefore important that an exporter ensures a force majeure clause in the export contract. Exchange Rate Risks Exchange rate risk is occurs due to the uncertainty in the future value of a currency. Exchange risk can be avoided by adopting Hedging scheme.
Export Risk Management Plan Risk management is a process of thinking analytically about all potential undesirable outcomes before they happen and setting up measures that will avoid them. There are six basic elements of the risk management process: • Establishing the context • Identifying the risks • Assessing probability and possible consequences of risks • Developing strategies to mitigate these risks • Monitoring and reviewing the outcomes • Communicating and consulting with the parties involved A risk management plan helps an exporter to broaden the risk profile for foreign market. For a small export business, an exporter must keep his risk management analysis clear and simple.
Export Risk Mitigation Export risk mitigations are the various strategies that can be adopted by an exporter to avoid the risks associated with the export of goods. • Direct Credit: Export Credit Agencies support exports through the provision of direct credits to either the importer or the exporter. o Importer: a buyer credit is provided to the importer to purchase goods. o Exporter: makes a deferred payment sale; insurance is used to protect the seller or bank. • Guarantees o Bid bond (tender guarantee): protects against exporter’s unrealistic bid or failure to execute the contract after winning the bid. o Performance bond: guarantees exporter’s performance after a contract is signed. Advance payment guarantee (letter of indemnity): in the case where an importer advances funds, guarantees a refund if exporter does not perform. o Standby letter of credit: issuing bank promises to pay exporter on behalf of importer. • Insurance o Transportation insurance: Covers goods during transport; degree of coverage varies. o Credit Insurance: Protects against buyer insolvency or protracted defaults and/or political risks. o Seller non-compliance (credit insurance): Covers advance payment risk. o Foreign exchange risk insurance: Provides a hedge against foreign exchange risk. • Hedging Instruments used to Hedge Price Risk o Stabilization programs and funds. o Timing of purchase/sale. Fixed price long-term contracts. o Forward contracts. o Swaps Packing and Labeling of Goods. ________________________________________ Introduction • Packaging • Labeling Introduction An important stage after manufacturing of goods or their procurement is their preparation for shipment which involves packaging and labelling of goods to be exported. Proper packaging and labelling not only makes the final product look attractive but also save a huge amount of money by saving the product from wrong handling the export process. Packaging The primary role of packaging is to contain, protect and preserve a product as well as aid in its handling and final presentation.
Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. The packaging can be done within the export company or the job can be assigned to an outside packaging company. Packaging provides following benefits to the goods to be exported: • Physical Protection – Packaging provides protection against shock, vibration, temperature, moisture and dust. • Containment or agglomeration – Packaging provides agglomeration of small objects into one package for reason of efficiency and cost factor. For example it is better to put 1000 pencils in one box rather than putting each pencil in separate 1000 boxes. • Marketing: Proper and attractive packaging play an important role in encouraging a potential buyer. Convenience – Packages can have features which add convenience in distribution, handling, display, sale, opening, use, and reuse. • Security – Packaging can play an important role in reducing the security risks of shipment. It also provides authentication seals to indicate that the package and contents are not counterfeit. Packages also can include anti-theft devices, such as dye-packs, RFID tags, or electronic article surveillance tags, that can be activated or detected by devices at exit points and require specialized tools to deactivate. Using packaging in this way is a means of loss prevention. Labeling Like packaging, labeling should also be done with extra care.
It is also important for an exporter to be familiar with all kinds of sign and symbols and should also maintain all the nationally and internationally standers while using these symbols. Labelling should be in English, and words indicating country of origin should be as large and as prominent as any other English wording on the package or label. Labelling on product provides the following important information: • Shipper’s mark • Country of origin • Weight marking (in pounds and in kilograms) • Number of packages and size of cases (in inches and centimeters) • Handling marks (international pictorial symbols) • Cautionary markings, such as “This Side Up. • Port of entry • Labels for hazardous materials Labelling of a product also provides information like how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. With pharmaceuticals, food, medical, and chemical products, some types of information are required by governments. It is better to choose a fast dyes for labelling purpose. Only fast dyes should be used for labeling. Essential data should be in black and subsidiary data in a less conspicuous colour; red and orange and so on. For food packed in sacks, only harmless dyes should be employed, and the dye should not come through the packing in such a way as to affect the goods. Inspection Certificates and Quality Control. ________________________________________ Introduction • ISI Certification • AgMmark Certification • Benefits of ISI nd Agmark Certification • In-Process Quality Control (IPQC) • Self Certification Scheme • ISO 9000 Introduction An important aspect about the goods to be exported is compulsory quality control and pre-shipment inspection. For this purpose, Export Inspection Council (EIC) was set up by the Government of India under Section 3 of the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963. It includes more than 1000 commodities which are organized into various groups for a compulsory pre-shipment inspection. It includes Food and Agriculture, Fishery, Minerals, Organic and Inorganic Chemicals, Rubber Products, Refractoriness, Ceramic Products, Pesticides, Light Engineering, Steel Products, Jute Products, Coir and Coir Products, Footwear and Footwear Products. An important aspect about the goods to be exported is compulsory quality control and pre-shipment inspection.
For this purpose, Export Inspection Council (EIC) was set up by the Government of India under Section 3 of the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963. It includes more than 1000 commodities which are organized into various groups for a compulsory pre-shipment inspection. It includes Food and Agriculture, Fishery, Minerals, Organic and Inorganic Chemicals, Rubber Products, Refractoriness, Ceramic Products, Pesticides, Light Engineering, Steel Products, Jute Products, Coir and Coir Products, Footwear and Footwear Products. ISI Certification Indian Standards Institute now known as Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) is a registered society under a Government of India.
BIS main functions include the development of technical standards, product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. Founded by Professor P. C. Mahalanobis in Kolkata on 17th December, 1931, the institute gained the status of an Institution of National Importance by an act of the Indian Parliament in 1959. AgMmark Certification AgMark is an acronym for Agricultural Marketing and is used to certify the food products for quality control. Agmark has been dominated by other quality standards including the non manufacturing standard ISO 9000. Benefits of ISI and Agmark Certification Products having ISI Certification mark or Agmark are not required to be inspected by any agency.
These products do not fall within the purview of the export inspection agencies network. The Customs Authorities allow export of such goods even if not accompanied by any pre-shipment inspection certificate, provided they are otherwise satisfied that the goods carry ISI Certification or the Agmark. In-Process Quality Control (IPQC) In-Process Quality Control (IPQC) inspection is mainly done for engineering products and is applied at the various stages of production. Units approved under IPQC system of in-process quality control may themselves issue the certificate of inspection, but only for the products for which they have been granted IPQC facilities.
The final certificate of inspection on the end-products is then given without in-depth study at the shipment stage. Self Certification Scheme Under the self Certification Scheme, large exporters and manufacturers are allowed to inspect their product without involving any other party. The facility is available to manufacturers of engineering products, chemical and allied products and marine products. Self-Certification is given on the basis that the exporter himself is the best judge of the quality of his products and will not allow his reputation to be spoiled in the international market by compromising on quality. Self-Certification Scheme is granted to the exporter for the period of one year.
Exporters with proven reputation can obtain the permission for self certification by submitting an application to the Director (Inspection and Quality Control), Export Inspection Council of India, 11th Floor, Pragati Tower, 26 Rajendra Place, New Delhi. ISO 9000 The discussion on inspection certificate and quality control is incomplete without ISO-9000. Established in 1987, ISO 9000 is a series of international standards that has been accepted worldwide as the norm assuring high quality of goods. The current version of ISO 9000 is ISO 9000:2000. Export Documents. ________________________________________ • Introduction • Shipping Bill / Bill of Export • Customs Declaration Form • Dispatch Note • Commercial invoice • Consular Invoice • Customs Invoice • Legalised / Visaed Invoice Certified Invoice • Packing List • Certificate of Inspection • Black List Certificate • Manufacturer’s Certificate • Certificate of Chemical Analysis • Certificate of Shipment • Health/ Veterinary/ Sanitary Certification • Certificate of Conditioning • Antiquity Measurement • Shipping Order • Cart/ Lorry Ticket • Shut Out Advice • Short Shipment Form Introduction An exporter without any commercial contract is completely exposed of foreign exchange risks that arises due to the probability of an adverse change in exchange rates. Therefore, it becomes important for the exporter to gain some knowledge about the foreign exchange rates, quoting of exchange rates and various factors determining the exchange rates.
In this section, we have discussed various topics related to foreign exchange rates in detail. Export from India required special document depending upon the type of product and destination to be exported. Export Documents not only gives detail about the product and its destination port but are also used for the purpose of taxation and quality control inspection certification. Shipping Bill / Bill of Export Shipping Bill/ Bill of Export is the main document required by the Customs Authority for allowing shipment. A shipping bill is issued by the shipping agent and represents some kind of certificate for all parties, included ship’s owner, seller, buyer and some other parties. For each one represents a kind of certificate document.
Documents Required for Post Parcel Customs Clearance In case of Post Parcel, no Shipping Bill is required. The relevant documents are mentioned below: • Customs Declaration Form – It is prescribed by the Universal Postal Union (UPU) and international apex body coordinating activities of national postal administration. It is known by the code number CP2/ CP3 and to be prepared in quadruplicate, signed by the sender. • Despatch Note- It is filled by the exporter to specify the action to be taken by the postal department at the destination in case the address is nontraceable or the parcel is refused to be accepted. • Commercial Invoice – Issued by the exporter for the full realisable amount of goods as per trade term. Consular Invoice – Mainly needed for the countries like Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Mauritius, New Zealand, Burma, Iraq, Ausatralia, Fiji, Cyprus, Nigeria, Ghana, Zanzibar etc. It is prepared in the prescribed format and is signed/ certified by the counsel of the importing country located in the country of export. • Customs Invoice – Mainly needed for the countries like USA, Canada, etc. It is prepared on a special form being presented by the Customs authorities of the importing country. It facilitates entry of goods in the importing country at preferential tariff rate. • Legalised / Visaed Invoice – This shows the seller’s genuineness before the appropriate consulate or chamber or commerce/ embassy. Certified Invoice – It is required when the exporter needs to certify on the invoice that the goods are of a particular origin or manufactured/ packed at a particular place and in accordance with specific contract. Sight Draft and Usance Draft are available for this. Sight Draft is required when the exporter expects immediate payment and Usance Draft is required for credit delivery. • Packing List – It shows the details of goods contained in each parcel / shipment. • Certificate of Inspection – It is a type of document describing the condition of goods and confirming that they have been inspected. • Black List Certificate – It is required for countries which have strained political relation. It certifies that the ship or the aircraft carrying the goods has not touched those country(s). Manufacturer’s Certificate – It is required in addition to the Certificate of Origin for few countries to show that the goods shipped have actually been manufactured and is available. • Certificate of Chemical Analysis – It is required to ensure the quality and grade of certain items such as metallic ores, pigments, etc. • Certificate of Shipment – It signifies that a certain lot of goods have been shipped. • Health/ Veterinary/ Sanitary Certification – Required for export of foodstuffs, marine products, hides, livestock etc. • Certificate of Conditioning – It is issued by the competent office to certify compliance of humidity factor, dry weight, etc. • Antiquity Measurement – It is issued by Archaeological Survey of India in case of antiques. Shipping Order – Issued by the Shipping (Conference) Line which intimates the exporter about the reservation of space of shipment of cargo through the specific vessel from a specified port and on a specified date. • Cart/ Lorry Ticket – It is prepared for admittance of the cargo through the port gate and includes the shipper’s name, cart/ lorry No. , marks on packages, quantity, etc. • Shut Out Advice – It is a statement of packages which are shut out by a ship and is prepared by the concerned shed and is sent to the exporter. • Short Shipment Form – It is an application to the customs authorities at port which advises short shipment of goods and required for claiming the return.
Customs Procedure for Export. ________________________________________ Registration • Processing of Shipping Bill • Quota Allocation • Arrival of Goods at Docks • System Appraisal of Shipping Bills • Customs Examination of Export Cargo • Stuffing / Loading of Goods in Containers • Drawal of Samples • Amendments • Export of Goods under Claim for Drawback • Generation of Shipping Bills In India custom clearance is a complex and time taking procedure that every export face in his export business. Physical control is still the basis of custom clearance in India where each consignment is manually examined in order to impose various types of export duties.
High import tariffs and multiplicity of exemptions and export promotion schemes also contribute in complicating the documentation and procedures. So, a proper knowledge of the custom rules and regulation becomes important for the exporter. For clearance of export goods, the exporter or export agent has to undertake the following formalities: Registration Any exporter who wants to export his good need to obtain PAN based Business Identification Number (BIN) from the Directorate General of Foreign Trade prior to filing of shipping bill for clearance of export goods. The exporters must also register themselves to the authorised foreign exchange dealer code and open a current account in the designated bank for credit of any drawback incentive.
Registration in the case of export under export promotion schemes: All the exporters intending to export under the export promotion scheme need to get their licences / DEEC book etc. Processing of Shipping Bill – Non-EDI: In case of Non-EDI, the shipping bills or bills of export are required to be filled in the format as prescribed in the Shipping Bill and Bill of Export (Form) regulations, 1991. An exporter need to apply different forms of shipping bill/ bill of export for export of duty free goods, export of dutiable goods and export under drawback etc. Processing of Shipping Bill – EDI: Under EDI System, declarations in prescribed format are to be filed through the Service Centers of Customs.
A checklist is generated for verification of data by the exporter/CHA. After verification, the data is submitted to the System by the Service Center operator and the System generates a Shipping Bill Number, which is endorsed on the printed checklist and returned to the exporter/CHA. For export items which are subject to export cess, the TR-6 challans for cess is printed and given by the Service Center to the exporter/CHA immediately after submission of shipping bill. The cess can be paid on the strength of the challan at the designated bank. No copy of shipping bill is made available to exporter/CHA at this stage. Quota Allocation The quota allocation label is required to be pasted on the export invoice.
The allocation number of AEPC (Apparel Export Promotion Council) is to be entered in the system at the time of shipping bill entry. The quota certification of export invoice needs to be submitted to Customs along-with other original documents at the time of examination of the export cargo. For determining the validity date of the quota, the relevant date needs to be the date on which the full consignment is presented to the Customs for examination and duly recorded in the Computer System. Arrival of Goods at Docks: On the basis of examination and inspection goods are allowed enter into the Dock. At this stage the port authorities check the quantity of the goods with the documents.
System Appraisal of Shipping Bills: In most of the cases, a Shipping Bill is processed by the system on the basis of declarations made by the exporters without any human intervention. Sometimes the Shipping Bill is also processed on screen by the Customs Officer. Customs Examination of Export Cargo: Customs Officer may verify the quantity of the goods actually received and enter into the system and thereafter mark the Electronic Shipping Bill and also hand over all original documents to the Dock Appraiser of the Dock who many assign a Customs Officer for the examination and intimate the officers’ name and the packages to be examined, if any, on the check list and return it to the exporter or his agent. The Customs Officer may inspect/examine the shipment along with the Dock Appraiser.
The Customs Officer enters the examination report in the system. He then marks the Electronic Bill along with all original documents and check list to the Dock Appraiser. If the Dock Appraiser is satisfied that the particulars entered in the system conform to the description given in the original documents and as seen in the physical examination, he may proceed to allow “let export” for the shipment and inform the exporter or his agent. Stuffing / Loading of Goods in Containers The exporter or export agent hand over the exporter’s copy of the shipping bill signed by the Appraiser “Let Export” to the steamer agent. The agent then approaches the proper officer for allowing the shipment.
The Customs Preventive Officer supervising the loading of container and general cargo in to the vessel may give “Shipped on Board” approval on the exporter’s copy of the shipping bill. Drawal of Samples: Where the Appraiser Dock (export) orders for samples to be drawn and tested, the Customs Officer may proceed to draw two samples from the consignment and enter the particulars thereof along with details of the testing agency in the ICES/E system. There is no separate register for recording dates of samples drawn. Three copies of the test memo are prepared by the Customs Officer and are signed by the Customs Officer and Appraising Officer on behalf of Customs and the exporter or his agent.
The disposal of the three copies of the test memo is as follows:• Original – to be sent along with the sample to the test agency. • Duplicate – Customs copy to be retained with the 2nd sample. • Triplicate – Exporter’s copy. The Assistant Commissioner/Deputy Commissioner if he considers necessary, may also order for sample to be drawn for purpose other than testing such as visual inspection and verification of description, market value inquiry, etc. Amendments: Any correction/amendments in the check list generated after filing of declaration can be made at the service center, if the documents have not yet been submitted in the system and the shipping bill number has not been generated.
In situations, where corrections are required to be made after the generation of the shipping bill number or after the goods have been brought into the Export Dock, amendments is carried out in the following manners. 1. The goods have not yet been allowed “let export” amendments may be permitted by the Assistant Commissioner (Exports). 2. Where the “Let Export” order has already been given, amendments may be permitted only by the Additional/Joint Commissioner, Custom House, in charge of export section. In both the cases, after the permission for amendments has been granted, the Assistant Commissioner / Deputy Commissioner (Export) may approve the amendments on the system on behalf of the Additional /Joint Commissioner.
Where the print out of the Shipping Bill has already been generated, the exporter may first surrender all copies of the shipping bill to the Dock Appraiser for cancellation before amendment is approved on the system. Export of Goods under Claim for Drawback: After actual export of the goods, the Drawback claim is processed through EDI system by the officers of Drawback Branch on first come first served basis without feeling any separate form. Generation of Shipping Bills: The Shipping Bill is generated by the system in two copies- one as Custom copy and one as exporter copy. Both the copies are then signed by the Custom officer and the Custom House Agent. Invisible Export. ________________________________________ • Introduction • Export Performance f the Indian service Industry • Government Initiatives • Strengths and Weaknesses of Indian Consulting Industry Introduction Invisible export is the part of international trade that does not involve the transfer of goods or tangible objects, which mostly include service sectors like banking, advertising, copyrights, insurance, consultancy etc. invisible exort also known as invisible trade is basically associated with the person’s own skill and knowledge is what is ‘sold’ rather than a piece of software or books. Invisible trade is composed of invisible imports and invisible exports. Since nothing tangible is transferred, the importer is defined as the person, group or country that receives the service. The exporter is defined as the supplier of the service.
The net total of a country’s invisible imports and invisible exports is called the invisible balance of trade and is a part of the country’s balance of trade. For countries that rely on service exports or on tourism, the invisible balance is particularly important. Export Performance of the Indian service Industry An analysis of the consultancy contracts secured by Indian project in the foreign market has been carried out by Exim Bank of India. As per the analysis, done during 1995-96 to 2000-01 indicates that consultancy contracts were secured largely in West Asia which accounted for 39% number wise and 46% value wise followed by South East Asia and Pacific & South Asia. South East Asia constituted 22% both by number and by value whereas South Asia was 18% number wise and 16% value wise.
According to the 2002 data of the Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO), India’s share in global trade in services was about 1. 3%. India’s share of consultancy exports is about 0. 5% of global trade in services. Government Initiatives In the recent years the Government of India has take some important step for the improvement of service based export. The Foreign Trade Policy, 2004 – 09 is one of them, which has announced the setting up of Services Export Promotion Council for promoting the Indian service sector in the foreign market. Government of India has also introduced Market Development Assistance (MDA), Market Access Initiative (MAI) scheme, proactive EXIM Policy and EXIM Bank schemes.
Government also provides exemption on service tax for export of consultancy services. However due to lack of clarity in the provisions in the present notification, consultancy export may be affected. Strengths and Weaknesses of Indian Consulting Industry • The major strengths of Indian invisible export or invisible trade include professional competence, low cost structure, diverse capabilities, high adaptability and quick learning capability of Indian consultants. • The major weaknesses of Indian invisible trade or invisible export include low quality assurance, low local presence overseas, low equity base, lack of market intelligence and low level of R;D. Export to SAARC Member Countries. _______________________________________ Introduction • South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) • Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) • Export to Afghanistan • Export to Bangladesh • Export to Bhutan • Export to Sri Lanka • Export to Nepal • Export to Maldives • Export to Pakistan Introduction Established in 1985, SAARC or South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is a group of eight countries including India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Maldives, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Nepal. They all are neighbor countries that share a lot of similarities in terms of religion and culture. Because of this Indian has adopted a liberal trade policy with these countries. Apart from SAARAC, India is also a member of BIMSTEC (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic Co-operation), International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
India is even a founding member of GATT and the World Trade Organisation (WTO). South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was signed at Islamabad during the Twelfth SAARC Summit on 6 January 2004. The Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was signed by all the member states of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), namely, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are categorized as Non-Least Developed Contracting States (NLDCS) and Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal are categorized as Least Developed Contracting States (LDCS).
Article 7 of the SAFTA Agreement provides for a phased tariff liberalization programme (TLP) under which, in two years, NLDCS would bring down tariffs to 20%, while LDCS will bring them down to 30%. Non-LDCS will then bring down tariffs from 20% to 0-5% in 5 years (Sri Lanka 6 years), while LDCS will do so in 8 years. NLDCs will reduce their tariffs for L. D. C. products to 0-5% in 3 years. This TLP covers all tariff lines except those kept in the sensitive list (negative list) by the member states. Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) is a special type of agreement that gives access to only certain goods. Preferential Trade Agreement is done by reducing tariffs, but it does not abolish them completely.
PTA is established through trade pact and it is the weakest form of economic integration. Among the SAARC countries, India enjoys PTA with the Afghanistan. Other countries that have PTA with India are Chile and MERCOSUR (a trading bloc in Latin America comprising Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay). Export to Afghanistan India has a signed a Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) on March 6,2003 with the Afghanistan, according to which preferential tariff is granted by the Government of Afghanistan on eight items exported from India including tea, medicines, sugar, cement. Export to Bangladesh Bangladesh is one of the largest export markets for Indian trade.
The bilateral trade between the two nations is carried out as per guidelines given in the Bangladesh Trade Agreement which provides beneficial arrangement for the use of waterways, railways and roadways passage of goods between two places in one country through the territory of the other. Major items exported from India to Bangladesh include wheat other cereals, dairy products, oils meals, cotton yarn, fabrics, made ups, petroleum crude and products, plastic and linoleum products rice machinery and instruments and primary and semi finished iron and steel, pulses transport equipments drugs pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals processed mineral manmade yarn, fabrics, made ups manufactures of metal and fresh fruits and vegetables. Export to Bhutan The Free Trade Agreement between India and Bhutan provides for free trade between the two countries.
Under this agreement India also provides shipment facilities through Indian Territory for Bhutan’s Trade with third countries. All the export transactions are carried out in Indian Rupees and Bhutanese Ngultrum. Major items exported from India to Bangladesh include metals machinery and instruments, machine tools transport equipments, electronics goods rice (other than basmati), spirit and beverages, miscellaneous processed items primary and semi finished iron and steel and cereals. Export to Sri Lanka After Bangladesh, Sri Lanka is the biggest export market for India. Trade between the two countries is carried out as per guidelines mention in the Indo-Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA).
Major items of export from India have been pulses, wheat, other cereal spices, oil meals, fresh vegetables, miscellaneous processed items, drugs pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals inorganic/ organic agro chemicals rubber manufactured goods except footwear, glass , glassware ceramic and allied products paper/wood products plastic and linoleum products non ferrous metals manufactures of metals, machinery and instruments, iron and steel bar/rod etc. primary and semi finished iron and steel, electronic goods, cotton yarn, fabric, made ups, and petroleum crude and products. Export to Nepal India-Nepal Trade Treaty between India and Nepal is signed for the time period of five years.
Under this trade agreement major items exported from India include drugs , pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, petroleum product, pulses, transport equipment, rice other than basmati, tobacco, manufactured, spices, oil meals fresh fruits and vegetables, miscellaneous processed items, ores and minerals glassware/ceramics, manufactures of metals, primary and semi finished iron and steel and cotton yarn fabrics made ups. Export to Maldives Trade between India and Maldives is governed by the rules as mentioned in the Indo-Maldives Trade Agreement signed on 31st March 1981. Under this agreement Indian major exports itmes to Maldives include rice other than basmati, sugar, fresh vegetables, miscellaneous processed item, drugs, pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals plastic and linoleum products, manufactures of metals and machinery equipment. India and Maldives also shares the status of “Most Favored Nation” with each other. Export to Pakistan No trade agreement has been signed between India and Pakistan till 2007.
Although India has granted the status of “Most Favoured Nation” to Pakistan since 1996 but Pakistan has yet to reciprocate by granting this status to India. Indian exports to Pakistan are restricted to a list 773 items known as Positive List and include rice other than basmati, spices, oil meals, iron ore, drugs, pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals rubber manufactured products except footwear, plastic and linoleum products, manufactures of metals and petroleum crude and products. Export From India to CIS Countires. ________________________________________ Introduction • Major Trading Partners in the CIS Region • Major Items of Exports • India CIS Trade Relations – Armenia • India CIS trade relations – Georgia • India
CIS Trade Relations – Ukraine • India CIS Trade Relations – Latvia • India CIS Trade Relations – Estonia • India CIS Trade Relations – Lithuania • India CIS Trade Relations – Belarus Introduction Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was founded in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. At present the CIS includes Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Ukraine. Relations between India and countries of the CIS Region have remained close and cordial since the Soviet era. However, bilateral trade and commercial relations of India have not grown commensurately with these newly formed countries. Due to the factors like distance, language barrier, inadequate transport facility, inadequacy of information about business opportunities CIS only constitutes 1. 2% share in India’s total exports.
Major Trading Partners in the CIS Region Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Belarus are India’s major trading partners, constituting more than 90% of India’s total bilateral trade with the CIS countries. Major Items of Exports India’s major items of export to this region are : cotton, drugs, pharmaceuticals coffee, tea tobacco machinery & instrument, processed mineral, plastic and Linoleum products gem & jewellery, transport equipment, etc. India CIS Trade Relations – Armenia Despite a trade agreement being signed, India’s trade with Armenia after independence has been not worth mentioning. Indian exports to Armenia in 2002 were worth US$ 5. 6 million which mainly includes car batteries, chemical goods, pharmaceuticals, and electrical equipments.
India CIS trade relations – Georgia Trade relations between India and Georgia were established in 1992, according to which two countries agreed that there would be cooperation within the framework of Indian Council for Cultural Relations and Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation. Trade turnover between India and Georgia in 2006 was US$ 20,521,700. Laws on tariffs have been simplified and so far the trend has been such that India’s exports to Georgia have been more than Georgia’s exports to India. India CIS Trade Relations – Ukraine Ukraine is the second largest trade partner of India in the CIS region, after the Russian Federation. Diplomatic relations between India and Ukraine were established way back in the 1960s. In March, 1992 a treaty on friendship and cooperation was signed to strengthen bilateral trade.
More than 17 bilateral Agreements have been signed between India and Ukraine, including agreements on Cooperation in Science and Technology, Foreign Office Consultation, Cooperation in Space Research, Avoidance of Double Taxation and Promotion and Protection of Investments. The amount of bilateral trade that took place between the two countries in 2004 was worth more than $500,000. India mainly exports pharmaceutical products to Ukraine. India CIS Trade Relations – Latvia In 1991, diplomatic relations between the two countries were formed. Bilateral trade relations between these two countries are not very intense due to inaction on both sides.
Import to Latvia amounted to US$ 16,954,219 and the export stood at US$ 2,554,392 in 2005. The major export items from India include pharmaceuticals and healthcare products, telecommunications, IT and software, development; heavy engineering; export of textiles gems and jewellery, chemicals and dyes, vegetables and fruits, leather and leather products and third country exports. India CIS Trade Relations – Estonia Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established in December, 1991. In 2005, the total amount of bilateral trade that took place was €19. 6 million. India mainly exports vegetables, chemical, and textile products to Estonia.
India CIS Trade Relations – Lithuania In July, 1993 an Agreement on Trade and Economic Cooperation was signed between India and Lithuania. India mainly exports pharmaceuticals, paper, and textiles items to Lithuania. The major items imported from India include pharmaceuticals, paper, and textiles. Lithuania exports cement, metals, sulphur, and base metals. The total bilateral trade between the two countries stands at US$ 47. 06. India CIS Trade Relations – Belarus In 2005, India’s trade turnover with Belarus amounted to around US$ 118. 3 million. The export items from India include pharmaceuticals, tea, rice, pepper, yarn, organic dyes, machine and electrical equipments. Organisations Supporting to Exporters. _______________________________________ • Introduction • Export Promotion Councils (EPC) • Commodity Boards • Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) • Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) • Indian Institution of Packaging (IIP) • Export Inspection Council (EIC) • Indian Council of Arbitration (ICA) • India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) • Chamber of Commerce & Industry (CII) • Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) • Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) • • • • Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) India Investment Centre (IIC) Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) Director General of Commercial Intelligence Statistics (DGCIS) Introduction In India there are a number of organisation and agencies that provides various types of support to the exporters from time to time.
These export organisations provides market research in the area of foreign trade, dissemination of information arising from its activities relating to research and market studies. So, exporter should contact them for the necessary assistance. Export Promotion Councils (EPC) Export Promotion Councils are registered as non -profit organisations under the Indian Companies Act. At present there are eleven Export Promotion Councils under the administrative control of the Department of Commerce and nine export promotion councils related to textile sector under the administrative control of Ministry of Textiles. The Export Promotion Councils perform both advisory and executive functions.
These Councils are also the registering authorities under the Export Import Policy, 2002-2007. Commodity Boards Commodity Board is registered agency designated by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India for purposes of export-promotion and has offices in India and abroad. There are five statutory Commodity Boards, which are responsible for production, development and export of tea, coffee, rubber, spices and tobacco. Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) FIEO was set up jointly by the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India and private trade and industry in the year 1965. FIEO is thus a partner of the Government of India in promoting India’s exports.
Address: Niryaat Bhawan, Rao Tula Ram Marg, Opp. Army Hospital. Research & Referral, New Delhi 110057 Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) was set up in 1963 by the Government of India as an autonomous organisation to help Indian exporters in foreign trade management and increase exports by developing human resources, generating, analysing and disseminating data and conducting research. Address: B-21 Kutub Institutional Area, Mehrauli Road, New Delhi-110016 Indian Institution of Packaging (IIP) The Indian Institute of Packaging or IIP in short was established in 1966 under the Societies Registration Act (1860).
Headquartered in Mumbai, IIP also has testing and development laboratories at Calcutta, New Delhi and Chennai. The Institute is closely linked with international organisations and is recognized by the UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organisation) and the ITC (International Trading Centre) for consultancy and training. The IIP is a member of the Asian Packaging Federation (APF), the Institute of Packaging Professionals (IOPP) USA, the Insitute of Packaging (IOP) UK, Technical Association of PULP AND Paper Industry (TAPPI), USA and the World Packaging Organisation (WPO). Address: B-2, MIDC Area, P. B. 9432, Andheri (E), Mumbai 400096.
Export Inspection Council (EIC) The Export Inspection Council or EIC in short, was set up by the Government of India under Section 3 of the Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963 in order to ensure sound development of export trade of India through Quality Control and Inspection. Address: 3rd Floor, ND YMCA, Cultural Centre Bldg. , 1, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi110001. Indian Council of Arbitration (ICA) The Indian Council for Arbitration (ICA) was established on April 15, 1965. ICA provides arbitration facilities for all types of Indian and international commercial disputes through its international panel of arbitrators with eminent and experienced persons from different lines of trade and professions.
Address: Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi-110001 India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) ITPO is a government organisation for promoting the country’s external trade. Its promotional tools include organizing of fairs and exhibitions in India and abroad, Buyer-Seller Meets, Contact Promotion Programmes, Product Promotion Programmes, Promotion through Overseas Department Stores, Market Surveys and Information Dissemination. Address: Pragati Bhawan Pragati Maidan, New Delhi-10001 Chamber of Commerce & Industry (CII) CII play an active role in issuing certificate of origin and taking up specific cases of exporters to the Govt. Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry or FICCI is an association of business organisations in India.
FICCI acts as the proactive business solution provider through research, interactions at the highest political level and global networking. Address: Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi-110001 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India, is a statutory body set up under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986. BIS is engaged in standard formulation, certification marking and laboratory testing. Address: 9, Manak Bhavan, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-110002 Textile Committee Textile Committee carries pre-shipment inspection of textiles and market research for textile yarns, textile machines etc.
Address: Textile Centre, second Floor, 34 PD, Mello Road, Wadi Bandar, Bombay400009 Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was constituted in 1972 under the Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 and plays an active role in the development of marine products meant for export with special reference to processing, packaging, storage and marketing etc. Address: P. B No. 4272 MPEDA House, pannampilly Avenue, Parampily Nagar, Cochin682036 India Investment Centre (IIC) Indian Investment Center (IIC) was set up in 1960 as an independent organization, which is under the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. The main objective behind the setting up of IIC was to encourage foreign private investment in the country.
IIC also assist Indian Businessmen for setting up of Industrial or other Joint ventures abroad. Address: Jeevan Vihar, 4th Floor, Parliament Street, New Delhi-110001 Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) DGFT or Directorate General of Foreign Trade is a government organisation in India responsible for the formulation of guidelines and principles for importers and exporters of country. Address: Udyog Bhawan, H-Wing, Gate No. 2, Maulana Azad Road, New Delhi -110011 Director General of Commercial Intelligence Statistics (DGCIS) DGCIS is the Primary agency for the collection, compilation and the publication of the foreign inland and ancillary trade statistics and dissemination of various types of commercial informations.
Address: I, Council House Street Calcutta-700001, EXPORT FINANCE : Export Finance Pre Shipment and Post Shipment ________________________________________ The Exim Guide to Export Finance has been developed for our exporter as well as importer from the team of Infodrive India Pvt. Ltd. We are export-import based company working for the benefits of exporters and importer through a strong and balance relationship among our clients. Exim Guide to Export Finance offers a wide variety of financial measures to promote exports. The guide also deals with the role of commercial banks and export credit agencies and private-sector credit insurance. This complete guide offers entrepreneurs practical information on how identify the most suitable payment methods and required credit facilities.
The guide also provides information on finance related legal documentation and models of the most common forms and agreements. • Chapter 1 – Payment Methods In Export Import • Chapter 2 – Payment Collection Against Bills • Chapter 3 – Letter Of Credit (L/c) • Chapter 4 – Trade Documents • Chapter 5 – Pre Shipment Trade Finance • Chapter 6 – Post Shipment Finance • Chapter 7 – Forfeiting Factoring • Chapter 8 – Bank Guarantees • Chapter 9 – Transport Risk • Chapter 10 – Contract Credit Risk • Chapter 11 – Country Political Risk • Chapter 12 – Currency Risk • Chapter 13 – Export Import (Exim) Policy • Chapter 14 – Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) • Chapter 15 – Fedai Guidlines Payment Methods in Export Import Trade. _______________________________________ • o o • o o o Clean Payments Advance Payment Open Account Payment Collection of Bills in International Trade Documents Against Payment D/P Documents Against Acceptance D/A Letter of Credit L/c Revocable & Irrevocable Letter of Credit (L/c) Sight & Time Letter of Credit Confirmed Letter of Credit (L/c) There are 3 standard ways of payment methods in the export import trade international trade market: 1. Clean Payment 2. Collection of Bills 3. Letters of Credit L/c 1. Clean Payments In clean payment method, all shipping documents, including title documents are handled directly between the trading partners. The role of banks is limited to clearing amounts as required. Clean payment method offers a relatively cheap and uncomplicated method of payment for both importers and exporters.
There are basically two type of clean payments: Advance Payment In advance payment method the exporter is trusted to ship the goods after receiving payment from the importer. Open Account In open account method the importer is trusted to pay the exporter after receipt of goods. The main drawback of open account method is that exporter assumes all the risks while the importer get the advantage over the delay use of company’s cash resources and is also not responsible for the risk associated with goods. 2. Payment Collection of Bills in International Trade The Payment Collection of Bills also called “Uniform Rules for Collections” is published by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) under the document number 522 (URC522) and is followed by more than 90% of the world’s banks.
In this method of payment in international trade the exporter entrusts the handling of commercial and often financial documents to banks and gives the banks necessary instructions concerning the release of these documents to the Importer. It is considered to be one of the cost effective methods of evidencing a transaction for buyers, where documents are manipulated via the banking system. There are two methods of collections of bill : Documents Against Payment D/P In this case documents are released to the importer only when the payment has been done. Documents Against Acceptance D/A In this case documents are released to the importer only against acceptance of a draft. 3.
Letter of Credit L/c Letter of Credit also known as Documentary Credit is a written undertaking by the importers bank known as the issuing bank on behalf of its customer, the importer (applicant), promising to effect payment in favor of the exporter (beneficiary) up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents. It is published by the International Chamber of Commerce under the provision of Uniform Custom and Practices (UCP) brochure number 500. Various types of L/Cs are : Revocable & Irrevocable Letter of Credit (L/c) A Revocable Letter of Credit can be cancelled without the consent of the exporter. An Irrevocable Letter of Credit cannot be cancelled or amended without the consent of all parties including the exporter. Sight & Time Letter of Credit If payment is to be made at the time of presenting the document then it is referred as the Sight Letter of Credit.
In this case banks are allowed to take the necessary time required to check the documents. If payment is to be made after the lapse of a particular time period as stated in the draft then it is referred as the Term Letter of Credit. Confirmed Letter of Credit (L/c) Under a Confirmed Letter of Credit, a bank, called the Confirming Bank, adds its commitment to that of the issuing bank. By adding its commitment, the Confirming Bank takes the responsibility of claim under the letter of credit, assuming all terms and conditions of the letter of credit are met. Payments collection methods in Export Import International Trade. ________________________________________ Introduction • Role of Various Parties o Exporter o Exporter’s Bank Buyer/Importer o Importe’s Bank • Documents Against Payments (D/P) • Docuemts Against Aceptance (D/A) • Usance D/P Bills Introduction Payment Collection Against Bills also known documentary collection as is a payment method used in international trade all over the world by the exporter for the handling of documents to the buyer’s bank and also gives the banks necessary instructions indicating when and on what conditions these documents can be released to the importer. Collection Against Bills is published by International Chambers of Commerce (ICC), Paris, France. The last updated issue of its rule was published on January 1, 1966 and is know as the URC 522.
It is different from the letters of credit, in the sense that the bank only acts as a medium for the transfer of documents but does not make any payment guarantee. However, collection of documents are subjected to the Uniform Rules for Collections published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). Role of Various Parties Exporter The seller ships the goods and then hands over the document related to the goods to their banks with the instruction on how and when the buyer would pay. Exporter’s Bank The exporter’s bank is known as the remitting bank , and they remit the bill for collection with proper instructions. The role of the remitting bank is to : • Check that the documents for consistency. Send the documents to a bank in the buyer’s country with instructions on collecting payment. • Pay the exporter when it receives payments from the collecting bank. Buyer/Importer The buyer / importer is the drawee of the Bill. The role of the importer is to : • Pay the bill as mention in the agreement (or promise to pay later). • Take the shipping documents (unless it is a clean bill) and clear the goods. Importer’s Bank This is a bank in the importer’s country : usually a branch or correspondent bank of the remitting bank but any other bank can also be used on the request of exporter. The collecting bank act as the remitting bank’s agent and clearly follows the instructions on the remitting bank’s covering schedule.
However the collecting bank does not guarantee payment of the bills except in very unusual circumstance for undoubted customer , which is called availing. Importer’s bank is known as the collecting / presenting bank. The role of the collecting banks is to : • Act as the remitting bank’s agent • Present the bill to the buyer for payment or acceptance. • Release the documents to the buyer when the exporter’s instructions have been followed. • Remit the proceeds of the bill according to the Remitting Bank’s schedule instructions. If the bill is unpaid / unaccepted, the collecting bank : • May arrange storage and insurance for the goods as per remitting bank instructions on the schedule. • Protests on behalf of the remitting bank (if the Remitting Bank’s schedule states Protest) Requests further instruction from the remitting bank, if there is a problem that is not covered by the instructions in the schedule. • Once payment is received from the importer, the collecting bank remits the proceeds promptly to the remitting bank less its charges. Documents Against Payments (D/P) This is sometimes also referred as Cash against Documents/Cash on Delivery. In effect D/P means payable at sight (on demand). The collecting bank hands over the shipping documents including the document of title (bill of lading) only when the importer has paid the bill. The drawee is usually expected to pay within 3 working days of presentation.
The attached instructions to the shipping documents would show “Release Documents Against Payment” Risks : Under D/P terms the exporter keeps control of the goods (through the banks) until the importer pays. If the importer refuses to pay, the exporter can: • Protest the bill and take him to court (may be expensive and difficult to control from another country). • Find another buyer or arrange a sale by an auction. With the last two choices, the price obtained may be lower but probably still better than shipping the goods back, sometimes, the exporter will have a contact or agent in the importer’s country that can help with any arrangements. In such a situation, an agent is often referred to as a CaseofNeed, means someone who can be contacted in case of need by the collecting bank.
If the importers refuses to pay, the collecting bank can act on the exporter’s instructions shown in the Remitting Bank schedule. These instructions may include: • Removal of the goods from the port to a warehouse and insure them. • Contact the case of need who may negotiate with the importer. • Protesting the bill through the bank’s lawyer. Docuemts Against Aceptance (D/A) Under Documents Against Acceptance, the Exporter allows credit to Importer, the period of credit is referred to as Usance, The importer/ drawee is required to accept the bill to make a signed promise to pay the bill at a set date in the future. When he has signed the bill in acceptance, he can take the documents and clear his goods.
The payment date is calculated from the term of the bill, which is usually a multiple of 30 days and start either from sight or form the date of shipment, whichever is stated on the bill of exchange. The attached instruction would show “Release Documents Against Acceptance”. Risk Under D/A terms the importer can inspect the documents and , if he is satisfied, accept the bill for payment o the due date, take the documents and clear the goods; the exporter loses control of them. The exporter runs various risk. The importer might refuse to pay on the due date because : • He finds that the goods are not what he ordered. • He has not been able to sell the goods. • He is prepared to cheat the exporter (In cases the exporter can protest the bill and take the importer to court but this can be expensive). The importer might have gone bankrupt, in which case the exporter will probably never get his money. Usance D/P Bills A Usance D/P Bill is an agreement where the buyer accepts the bill payable at a specified date in future but does not receive the documents until he has actually paid for them. The reason is that airmailed documents may arrive much earlier than the goods shipped by sea. The buyer is not responsible to pay the bill before its due date, but he may want to do so, if the ship arrives before that date. This mode of payments is less usual, but offers more settlement possibility. These are still D/P terms so there is no extra risk to the exporter or his bank.
As an alternative the covering scheduled may simply allow acceptance or payments to be deferred awaiting arrival of carrying vessel. There are different types of usance D/P bills, some of which do not require acceptance specially those drawn payable at a fix period after date or drawn payable at a fixed date. Bills requiring acceptance are those drawn at a fix period after sight, which is necessary to establish the maturity date. If there are problems regarding storage of goods under a usance D/P bill, the collecting bank should notify the remitting bank without delay for instructions. However, it should be noted that it is not necessary for the collecting bank to follow each and every instructions given by the Remitting Banks. Letter of Credit(L/c) Documentry Collection. _______________________________________ Introduction • Parties to Letters of Credit • Types of Letter of Credit • Standby Letter of Credit L/c • Import Operations Under L/c • Export Operations Under L/c • Fees And Reimbursements • Regulatory Requirements • Trade Control Requirements • Exchange Control Requirements • UCPDC Guidelines • ISBP 2002 • FEDAI Guidelines • Fixing limits for Commercial Stand by Letter of Credit L/c Introduction Letter of Credit L/c also known as Documentary Credit is a widely used term to make payment secure in domestic and international trade. The document is issued by a financial organization at the buyer request. Buyer also provide the necessary instructions in preparing the document.
The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in the Uniform Custom and Practice for Documentary Credit (UCPDC) defines L/C as: “An arrangement, however named or described, whereby a bank (the Issuing bank) acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the Applicant) or on its own behalf : 1. Is to make a payment to or to the order third party ( the beneficiary ) or is to accept bills of exchange (drafts) drawn by the beneficiary. 2. Authorised another bank to effect such payments or to accept and pay such bills of exchange (draft). 3. Authorised another bank to negotiate against stipulated documents provided that the terms are complied with. A key principle underlying letter of credit (L/C) is that banks deal only in documents and not in goods.
The decision to pay under a letter of credit will be based entirely on whether the documents presented to the bank appear on their face to be in accordance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. Parties to Letters of Credit • Applicant (Opener): Applicant which is also referred to as account party is normally a buyer or customer of the goods, who has to make payment to beneficiary. LC is initiated and issued at his request and on the basis of his instructions. • Issuing Bank (Opening Bank) : The issuing bank is the one which create a letter of credit and takes the responsibility to make the payments on receipt of the documents from the beneficiary or through their banker.
The payments has to be made to the beneficiary within seven working days from the date of receipt of documents at their end, provided the documents are in accordance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. If the documents are discrepant one, the rejection thereof to be communicated within seven working days from the date of of receipt of documents at their end. • Beneficiary : Beneficiary is normally stands for a seller of the goods, who has to receive payment from the applicant. A credit is issued in his favour to enable him or his agent to obtain payment on surrender of stipulated document and comply with the term and conditions of the L/c.
If L/c is a transferable one and he transfers the credit to another party, then he is referred to as the first or original beneficiary. • Advising Bank : An Advising Bank provides advice to the beneficiary and takes the responsibility for sending the documents to the issuing bank and is normally located in the country of the beneficiary. • Confirming Bank : Confirming bank adds its guarantee to the credit opened by another bank, thereby undertaking the responsibility of payment/negotiation acceptance under the credit, in additional to that of the issuing bank. Confirming bank play an important role where the exporter is not satisfied with the undertaking of only the issuing bank. Negotiating Bank: The Negotiating Bank is the bank who negotiates the documents submitted to them by the beneficiary under the credit either advised through them or restricted to them for negotiation. On negotiation of the documents they will claim the reimbursement under the credit and makes the payment to the beneficiary provided the documents submitted are in accordance with the terms and conditions of the letters of credit. • Reimbursing Bank : Reimbursing Bank is the bank authorized to honor the reimbursement claim in settlement of negotiation/acceptance/payment lodged with it by the negotiating bank. It is normally the bank with which issuing bank has an account from which payment has to be made. • Second Beneficiary : Second Beneficiary is the person who represent the first or original Beneficiary of credit in his absence.
In this case, the credits belonging to the original beneficiary is transferable. The rights of the transferee are subject to terms of transfer. Types of Letter of Credit 1. Revocable Letter of Credit L/c A revocable letter of credit may be revoked or modified for any reason, at any time by the issuing bank without notification. It is rarely used in international trade and not considered satisfactory for the exporters but has an advantage over that of the importers and the issuing bank. There is no provision for confirming revocable credits as per terms of UCPDC, Hence they cannot be confirmed. It should be indicated in LC that the credit is revocable. f there is no such indication the credit will be deemed as irrevocable. 2. Irrevocable Letter of CreditL/c In this case it is not possible to revoked or amended a credit without the agreement of the issuing bank, the confirming bank, and the beneficiary. Form an exporters point of view it is believed to be more beneficial. An irrevocable letter of credit from the issuing bank insures the beneficiary that if the required documents are presented and the terms and conditions are complied with, payment will be made. 3. Confirmed Letter of Credit L/c Confirmed Letter of Credit is a special type of L/c in which another bank apart from the issuing bank has added its guarantee.
Although, the cost of confirming by two banks makes it costlier, this type of L/c is more beneficial for the beneficiary as it doubles the guarantee. 4. Sight Credit and Usance Credit L/c Sight credit states that the payments would be made by the issuing bank at sight, on demand or on presentation. In case of usance credit, draft are drawn on the issuing bank or the correspondent bank at specified usance period. The credit will indicate whether the usance draft are to be drawn on the issuing bank or in the case of confirmed credit on the confirming bank. 5. Back to Back Letter of Credit L/c Back to Back Letter of Credit is also termed as Countervailing Credit. A credit is known as backtoback credit when a L/c is opened with security of another L/c.
A backtoback credit which can also be referred as credit and countercredit is actually a method of financing both sides of a transaction in which a middleman buys goods from one customer and sells them to another. The parties to a BacktoBack Letter of Credit are: 1. The buyer and his bank as the issuer of the original Letter of Credit. 2. The seller/manufacturer and his bank, 3. The manufacturer’s subcontractor and his bank. The practical use of this Credit is seen when L/c is opened by the ultimate buyer in favour of a particular beneficiary, who may not be the actual supplier/ manufacturer offering the main credit with near identical terms in favour as security and will be able to obtain reimbursement by presenting the documents received under back to back credit under the main L/c.
The need for such credits arise mainly when : 1. The ultimate buyer not ready for a transferable credit 2. The Beneficiary do not want to disclose the source of supply to the openers. 3. The manufacturer demands on payment against documents for goods but the beneficiary of credit is short of the funds 6. Transferable Letter of Credit L/c A transferable documentary credit is a type of credit under which the first beneficiary which is usually a middleman may request the nominated bank to transfer credit in whole or in part to the second beneficiary. The L/c does state clearly mentions the margins of the first beneficiary and unless it is specified the L/c cannot be treated as transferable.
It can only be used when the company is selling the product of a third party and the proper care has to be taken about the exit policy for the money transactions that take place. This type of L/c is used in the companies that act as a middle man during the transaction but don’t have large limit. In the transferable L/c there is a right to substitute the invoice and the whole value can be transferred to a second beneficiary. The first beneficiary or middleman has rights to change the following terms and conditions of the letter of credit: 1. Reduce the amount of the credit. 2. Reduce unit price if it is stated 3. Make shorter the expiry date of the letter of credit. 4.
Make shorter the last date for presentation of documents. 5. Make shorter the period for shipment of goods. 6. Increase the amount of the cover or percentage for which insurance cover must be effected. 7. Substitute the name of the applicant (the middleman) for that of the first beneficiary (the buyer). Standby Letter of Credit L/c Initially used by the banks in the United States, the standby letter of credit is very much similar in nature to a bank guarantee. The main objective of issuing such a credit is to secure bank loans. Standby credits are usually issued by the applicant’s bank in the applicant’s country and advised to the beneficiary by a bank in the beneficiary’s country.
Unlike a traditional letter of credit where the beneficiary obtains payment against documents evidencing performance, the standby letter of credit allow a beneficiary to obtains payment from a bank even when the applicant for the credit has failed to perform as per bond. A standby letter of credit is subject to “Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credit” (UCP), International Chamber of Commerce Publication No 500, 1993 Revision, or “International Standby Practices” (ISP), International Chamber of Commerce Publication No 590, 1998. Import Operations Under L/c The Import Letter of Credit guarantees an exporter payment for goods or services, provided the terms of the letter of credit have been met. A bank issue an import letter of credit on the behalf of an importer or buyer under the following Circumstances • When a importer is importing goods within its own country. When a trader is buying good from his own country and sell it to the another country for the purpose of merchandizing trade. • When an Indian exporter who is executing a contract outside his own country requires importing goods from a third country to the country where he is executing the contract. The first category of the most common in the day to day banking Fees And Reimbursements The different charges/fees payable under import L/c is briefly as follows 1. The issuing bank charges the applicant fees for opening the letter of credit. The fee charged depends on the credit of the applicant, and primarily comprises of : (a) Opening Charges This would comprise commitment charges and usance charged to be charged upfront for the period of the L/c.
The fee charged by the L/c opening bank during the commitment period is referred to as commitment fees. Commitment period is the period from the opening of the letter of credit until the last date of negotiation of documents under the L/c or the expiry of the L/c, whichever is later. Usance is the credit period agreed between the buyer and the seller under the letter of credit. This may vary from 7 days usance (sight) to 90/180 days. The fee charged by bank for the usance period is referred to as usance charges (b)Retirement Charges 1. This would be payable at the time of retirement of LCs. LC opening bank scrutinizes the bills under the LCs according to UCPDC guidelines , and levies charges based on value of goods. 2.
The advising bank charges an advising fee to the beneficiary unless stated otherwise The fees could vary depending on the country of the beneficiary. The advising bank charges may be eventually borne by the issuing bank or reimbursed from the applicant. 3. The applicant is bounded and liable to indemnify banks against all obligations and responsibilities imposed by foreign laws and usage. 4. The confirming bank’s fee depends on the credit of the issuing bank and would be borne by the beneficiary or the issuing bank (applicant eventually) depending on the terms of contract. 5. The reimbursing bank charges are to the account of the issuing bank.
Risk Associated with Opening Imports L/cs The basic risk associated with an issuing bank while opening an import L/c are : 1. The financial standing of the importer As the bank is responsible to pay the money on the behalf of the importer, thereby the bank should make sure that it has the proper funds to pay. 2. The goods Bankers need to do a detail analysis against the risks associated with perishability of the goods, possible obsolescence, import regulations packing and storage, etc. Price risk is the another crucial factor associated with all modes of international trade. 3. Exporter Risk There is always the risk of exporting inferior quality goods.
Banks need to be protective by finding out as much possible about the exporter using status report and other confidential information. 4. Country Risk These types of risks are mainly associated with the political and economic scenario of a country. To solve this issue, most banks have specialized unit which control the level of exposure that that the bank will assumes for each country. 5. Foreign exchange risk Foreign exchange risk is another most sensitive risk associated with the banks. As the transaction is done in foreign currency, the traders depend a lot on exchange rate fluctuations. Export Operations Under L/c Export Letter of Credit is issued in for a trader for his native country for the purchase of goods and services.
Such letters of credit may be received for following purpose: 1. For physical export of goods and services from India to a Foreign Country. 2. For execution of projects outside India by Indian exporters by supply of goods and services from Indian or partly from India and partly from outside India. 3. Towards deemed exports where there is no physical movements of goods from outside India But the supplies are being made to a project financed in foreign exchange by multilateral agencies, organization or project being executed in India with the aid of external agencies. 4. For sale of goods by Indian exporters with total procurement and supply from outside India.
In all the above cases there would be earning of Foreign Exchange or conservation of Foreign Exchange. Banks in India associated themselves with the export letters of credit in various capacities such as advising bank, confirming bank, transferring bank and reimbursing bank. In every cases the bank will be rendering services not only to the Issuing Bank as its agent correspondent bank but also to the exporter in advising and financing his export activity. 1. Advising an Export L/c The basic responsibility of an advising bank is to advise the credit received from its overseas branch after checking the apparent genuineness of the credit recognized by the issuing bank.
It is also necessary for the advising bank to go through the letter of credit, try to understand the underlying transaction, terms and conditions of the credit and advice the beneficiary in the matter. The main features of advising export LCs are: 1. There are no credit risks as the bank receives a onetime commission for the advising service. 2. There are no capital adequacy needs for the advising function. 2. Advising of Amendments to L/Cs Amendment of LCs is done for various reasons and it is necessary to fallow all the necessary the procedures outlined for advising. In the process of advising the amendments the Issuing bank serializes the amendment number and also ensures that no previous amendment is missing from the list. Only on receipt of satisfactory information/ clarification the amendment may be advised. 3.
Confirmation of Export Letters of Credit It constitutes a definite undertaking of the confirming bank, in addition to that of the issuing bank, which undertakes the sight payment, deferred payment, acceptance or negotiation. Banks in India have the facility of covering the credit confirmation risks with ECGC under their “Transfer Guarantee” scheme and include both the commercial and political risk involved. 4. Discounting/Negotiation of Export LCs When the exporter requires funds before due date then he can discount or negotiate the LCs with the negotiating bank. Once the issuing bank nominates the negotiating bank, it can take the credit risk on the issuing bank or confirming bank.
However, in such a situation, the negotiating bank bears the risk associated with the document that sometimes arises when the issuing bank discover discrepancies in the documents and refuses to honor its commitment on the due date. 5. Reimbursement of Export LCs Sometimes reimbursing bank, on the recommendation of issuing bank allows the negotiating bank to collect the money from the reimbursing bank once the goods have been shipped. It is quite similar to a cheque facility provided by a bank. In return, the reimbursement bank earns a commission per transaction and enjoys float income without getting involve in the checking the transaction documents. reimbursement bank play an important role in payment on the due date.