MBA – 2nd Semester Subject Project Management Assignment MB0049 – Set1 Q. 1 Comment on the following a. Importance of DMAIS in project management cycle The projectised mantras of production management can be broadly identified as – Define Measure, Analyze, Improve, Standardize (DMAIS). These projectised mantras help in identifying, evaluating, and selecting the right improvement solutions for managing a project. The mantras also help in identifying the critical issues thus assisting the organization to adapt to the changes introduced through the implementation of different solutions.
The phases associated with each projectised mantra of production management are: 1. Define: benchmark, customer requirement, process flow map, quality function deployment, project management plan 2. Measure: data collection, defect metrics, sampling 3. Analysis: cause and effect, failure modes and effect analysis, decision and risk analysis, root cause analysis, reliability analysis 4. Improve: Design of experiments, modeling and robust design 5. Standardize: control charts, time series, procedural adherence, performance management, preventive activities displays the various phases of DMIAS. . Knowledge areas of project management ?There are nine knowledge areas in Project Management: 1. Project Integration Management 2. Project Scope Management 3. Project Time Management 4. Project Cost Management 5. Project Quality Management 6. Project Human Resource Management 7. Project Communications Management 8. Project Risk Management 9. Project Procurement Management Each of the nine knowledge areas contains the processes that need to be accomplished within its discipline in order to achieve an effective project management program.
Each of these processes also falls into one of the five basic process groups, creating a matrix structure such that every process can be related to one knowledge area and one process group. Q. 2 Write few words on: a. Project Characteristics The word PROJECT comes from the Latin word PROJECTUM from the Latin verb PROICERE; which means “to throw something forwards” which in turn comes from PRO-which denotes something that precedes the action of the next part of the word in time and ICERE, “to throw”.
The word PROJECT thus actually originally meant “something that comes before anything else happens”. A project in business and science is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Basically, it is planned to achieve a particular aim. The aim of a project is to attain its objective and then terminate. Some of the reasons to start a project can be: •A customer request or market demand •An organizational need •A customer request •A technological advance •A legal requirement
Projects and operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique. Generally, a project is a means of organizing some activities that cannot be addressed within the normal operational limits. Project characteristics: •It is temporary – temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Project always has a definitive time frame. •A project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services, or results. •A project creates a capability to perform a service. Project is always developed in steps and continuing by increments – Progressive Elaboration. b. WBS A work breakdown structure (WBS) in project management and systems engineering, is a tool used to define and group a project’s discrete work elements in a way that helps organize and define the total work scope of the project.. A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, a service, or any combination. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control.
Additionally the WBS is a dynamic tool and can be revised and updated as needed by the project manager The Work Breakdown Structure is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective; for example aprogram, project, and contract. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e. g. , systems, subsystems, components, tasks, subtasks, and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective.
The Work Breakdown Structure provides a common framework for the natural development of the overall planning and control of a contract and is the basis for dividing work into definable increments from which the statement of work can be developed and technical, schedule, cost, and labor hour reporting can be established. A work breakdown structure permits summing of subordinate costs for tasks, materials, etc. , into their successively higher level “parent” tasks, materials, etc. For each element of the work breakdown structure, a description of the task to be performed is generated. 3] This technique (sometimes called a System Breakdown Structure ) is used to define and organize the total scope of a project. The WBS is organised around the primary products of the project (or planned outcomes) instead of the work needed to produce the products (planned actions). Since the planned outcomes are the desired ends of the project, they form a relatively stable set of categories in which the costs of the planned actions needed to achieve them can be collected. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign each project activity to one and only one terminal element of the WBS.
In addition to its function in cost accounting, the WBS also helps map requirements from one level of system specification to another, for example a requirements cross reference matrix mapping functional requirements to high level or low level design documents. c. PMIS Project Management Information System (PMIS) are system tools and techniques used in project management to deliver information. Project managers use the techniques and tools to collect, combine and distribute information through electronic and manual means.
Project Management Information System (PMIS) is used by upper and lower management to communicate with each other. Project Management Information System (PMIS) help plan, execute and close project management goals. During the planning process, project managers use PMIS for budget framework such as estimating costs. The Project Management Information System is also used to create a specific schedule and define the scope baseline. At the execution of the project management goals, the project management team collects information into one database.
The PMIS is used to compare the baseline with the actual accomplishment of each activity, manage materials, collect financial data, and keep a record for reporting purposes. During the close of the project, the Project Management Information System is used to review the goals to check if the tasks were accomplished. Then, it is used to create a final report of the project close. To conclude, the project management information system (PMIS) is used to plan schedules, budget and execute work to be accomplished in project management. . Project Management strategies-Internal ; external Effective Internal Project Management Strategies Projects fail for many internal reasons, some of them technical, some of them managerial. However, even the technical failures can often be traced back to a failure on the part of the project’s executive management to recognize and deal with these inherent managerial risks. On the other hand, probably the majority of apparently successful projects do not reflect their optimum potential either.
As a matter of project experience, a number of prerequisites have been identified with the successful project. While these prerequisites do not necessarily guarantee success of future projects, their absence may well lead to sub-optimal success, if not outright failure. The Project’s Executive has a vital role to play in achieving project success and should therefore insist on the following: Executive Support – The Executive must clearly demonstrate support for the project management concept by active sponsorship and control.
External Authority – The project manager must be seen as the authoritative agent in dealing with all parties, and be the responsible and single formal contact with them. Internal Authority – The project manager must have the necessary managerial authority within his organization to ensure response to his requirements. Commitment Authority – The project manager must have the responsibility and authority to control the commitment of resources, including funds, within prescribed limits. The results of these decisions must be both accountable and visible.
Project Manager Involved in All Major Decisions – No major technical, cost, schedule, or performance decisions should be made without the project manager’s participation. Competence – The project manager and his team members must be competent. Other functional personnel assigned to the project must also be competent. Project Team – The project manager should have a say in the assembly of his project team, which will help him to obtain their personal commitment, support and required quality of service.
Management Information Systems – Effective project management information and control systems must be in place. Effective External Project Management Strategies Prerequisites for avoiding internal project failure, or at least sub-optimal results, were discussed earlier. However, it has also been noted earlier that external conditions and events also represent uncertainty and risk to the successful accomplishment of the project. These conditions have been linked to the external stakeholders of the project. Therefore, it is ssential to develop a sound stakeholder environment. Developing a Sound Stakeholder Environment Just as the means of influencing the project’s cultural environment, as described above, was one of developing the right attitude, so it is with developing a sound stakeholder environment. Perhaps this attitude is best reflected by adopting a mind set that reverses the traditional organization chart hierarchy. In other words, place the project stakeholders at the top of the chart, followed by the front-line project team members, and on down to the project manager at the bottom.
Perhaps the project team will then be better visualized as a truly service organization, designed to serve the best interests of a successful project outcome, both perceived and in reality. Some suggested steps in this process include: •Learn how to understand the role of the various stakeholders, and how this information may be used as an opportunity to improve both the perception and reception of the project •Identify the real nature of each stakeholder group’s business and their consequent interest in the project •Understand their behavior and motivation Assess how they may react to various approaches •Pinpoint the characteristics of the stakeholders’ environment and develop appropriate responses to facilitate a good relationship •Learn project management’s role in responding to the stakeholders drive behind the project •Determine the key areas which will have the most impact on the successful reception of the project •Remember always that even a minor stakeholder group may discover the “fatal flaw” in the project and which could bring the project to a standstill! Q. What are the various SCMo softwares available in project management? Explain each in brief. The process documentation system is intranet based to provide immediate access to current, up-to-date process documentation. The system allows users to navigate through graphical structures to relevant documentation and processes which were created with the ARIS-Toolset. The content of the process documentation system includes the area supply chain management from the Odette Supply Chain Management Group. The system includes graphical rocess documentation, in the form of process chains, as well as the entire range of documentation related to the processes. The Process Documentation System gives, according to its objectives, an overview and a detailed view of the relevant processes for SCMo. The entry point in the documentations system is the model “Process Overview SCMo”. This model is the starting point for the navigation to other models. The navigation between models is done via the assignment symbol. The assignment symbol of a function / process Interface indicates that there is a link to another model.
The linked / assigned models can be opened by double-clicking on the assignment symbol. This can be classified into two different navigations as shown in figure. a) Vertical Navigation: The vertical navigation is the navigation on different levels. Starting on the work package level and going downwards into more detail, the first models of processes are found on the sub-process level. In the model “Process Overview SCMo” those processes are assigned to the functions on Level 2. In the models there can be assignments for some functions, e. g. or a Function Allocation Diagram or a sub-process that describes that function. These two examples are currently the models on the lowest level. b) Horizontal Navigation: The horizontal navigation is on the same level. Some processes have a link to other processes, which can be at the start or end or even in the process itself, when another process is imbedded in the process. Those links are represented by Process Interfaces. Microsoft has a team project management solution that enables project managers and their teams to collaborate on projects.
The Microsoft Project 2002 products in these solutions are: 1. Microsoft Project Standard 2002 2. Microsoft Project Server 2002 3. Microsoft Project Server Client Access License (CAL) 2002. Support Software Having learnt the basics of application software, you would have a fair idea of how and to what extent project management processes could be automated. However, the challenge of “making things work” remains unchanged. While software vendors are confident of “making it work”, two yawning gaps still remain: 1. Business processes which are not covered in such software 2.
Integration of multi vendor supported software applications The enterprise is normally in a dilemma – whether to look at the same vendors to support such customisation or not. This normally works out too expensive for their comfort or within their tight budgets. Several software vendors have seized the opportunity with offerings that substantially fill these gaps effectively at a fraction of the costs quoted by the major vendors. The other carrot which these vendors offer is a unilateral transfer of the facility to customise themselves which is seen as a huge advantage.
The various support software that may be used for managing projects are: 1. ARROW 2. FEDORA 3. VITAL 4. PILIN 5. MS EXCHANGE SERVER 2003 The ARROW Project It is a consortia of institutional repository solution, combining open source and proprietary Software . Arrow is preferred support software because it: • Provides a platform for promoting research output in the ARROW context • Safeguards digital information • Gathers an institution’s research output into one place • Provides consistent ways of finding similar objects Allows information to be preserved over the long term • Allows information from many repositories to be gathered and searched in one step • Enables resources to be shared, while respecting access constraints • Enables effective communication and collaboration between researchers The vision of project ARROW: “The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-prints, digital theses and electronic publishing. ” ARROW project wanted to be a solution for storing any digital output.
Their initial focus was on print equivalents such as thesis and journal articles among others. It provided solution that could offer on-going technical support and development past the end of the funding period of the project. Fedora ARROW wanted a robust, well architected underlying platform and a flexible object-oriented data model to be able to have persistent identifiers down to the level of individual data streams. It accommodates the content model to be able to be version independent. Since the beginning of the project ARROW has worked actively and closely with Fedora and the Fedora Community.
The ARROW project’s Technical Architect is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and sits on Fedora Development Group. This association is reinforced by VTLS Inc. VTLS President is a member of Fedora Advisory Board and VITAL Lead Developer sits on Fedora Development Group VITAL VITAL refers to ARROW specified software created and fully supported by VTLS Inc. built on top of Fedora. It currently provides: 1. VITAL Manager 2. VITAL Portal 3. VITAL Access Portal 4. VALET – Web Self-Submission Tool 5. Batch Loader Tool 6. Handles Server (CNRI) . Google Indexing and Exposure 8. SRU / SRW Support 9. VITAL architecture overview VITAL is part of creative development of ARROW institutional repositories. VITAL has the following features: 1. Inclusion of multimedia and creative works produced in Australian universities 2. Limited exposure nationally or internationally 3. Addition of annotation capability 4. Inclusion of datasets and other research output not easily provided in any other publishing channel 5. Being developed in conjunction with the DART (ARCHER) Project 6.
Exploration of the research-teaching nexus tools that will allow value added services for repositories 7. Integration with or development of new tools that will allow value added services for repositories (for instance the creation of e-portfolios or CVs of research output of individual academics) PILIN – Persistent Identifiers and Linking Infrastructure There has been a growing realisation that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within universities.
PILIN is a particular challenge for e-research communities where massive amounts of data are being generated without any means of managing this data over any length of time. The broad objectives are to: 1. Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders 2. Plan for a sustainable, shared identifier management infrastructure that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over archival lengths of time 3. Deploy a Worldwide Site Consolidation Solution for Exchange Server 2003 at Microsoft 4.
Add Picture 5. Use Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 to consolidate more than 70 messaging sites worldwide into seven physical locations In this context, let us look at Microsoft Model Enterprises (MME). Microsoft Model Enterprises (MME) Objectives • Maximising the number of management tasks performed centrally • Decreasing the number of sites through the consolidation of the smaller locations into a smaller number of RDCs • Reducing the total number of infrastructure and application servers • Standardising infrastructure and devices worldwide
Solution • Consolidation of 75 tail sites into 6 regional data centers (RDCs) using local storage area networks (SANs) • Key Focus Areas • Proactive, detailed monitoring and analysis of WAN bandwidth utilisation and latency • Effective but flexible approach to project planning, scheduling, and cross-group coordination • Coordination and control of deployment of successive pre-release versions of Office System 2003 (including Outlook 2003) Business Benefits • Four percent overall direct cost savings Key enabler of the Microsoft ME initiative which through fiscal year 2003 has produced millions in overall consolidation savings including USE IT Benefits • Improved server utilisation • Improved server management • Strengthened security • Increased reliability Q. 4 List the various steps for Risk management. Also explain GDM and its key features. Risk management may be classified and categorized as: 1. Risk assessment and identification – The assessment and identification focuses on numerating possible risks to the project.
Methods that can aid risk identification include checklists of possible risks, surveys, meetings and brainstorming and reviews of plans, process and work products. The project manager can also use the process database to get information about risks and risk management on similar projects. 2. Risk prioritization – focus on the highest risk. Prioritization requires analyzing the possible effects of the risk event in case it actually occurs. This approach requires a quantitative assessment of the risk probability and the risk consequences. For each risk rate the probability of its happening as low, medium or high.
If necessary, assign probability values in the ranges given for each rating. For each risk, assess its impact on the project as low, medium, high or very high. Rank the risk based on the probability. Select the top few risk items for mitigation and tracking. 3. Risk Control – The main task is to identify the actions needed to minimize the risk consequences, generally called risk mitigation steps. Refer to a list of commonly used risk mitigation steps for various risks from the previous risk logs maintained by the PM and select a suitable risk mitigation step.
The risk mitigation step must be properly executed by incorporating them into the project schedule. In addition to monitoring the progress of the planned risk mitigation steps periodically revisit project. The results of this review are reported in each milestone analysis report. To prepare this report, make fresh risk analysis to determine whether the priorities have Risk Analysis The first step in risk analysis is to make each risk item more specific. Risks such as, “Lack of Management buy in,” and “people might leave,” are a little ambiguous.
In these cases the group might decide to split the risk into smaller specific risks, such as, “manager Jane decides that the project is not beneficial,” “Database expert might leave,” and “Webmaster might get pulled off the project. ” The next step is to set priorities and determine where to focus risk mitigation efforts. Some of the identified risks are unlikely to occur, and others might not be serious enough to worry about. During the analysis, discuss with the team members, each risk item to understand how devastating it would be if it did occur, and how likely it is to occur.
For example, if you had a risk of a key person leaving, you might decide that it would have a large impact on the project, but that it is not very likely. In the process below, we have the group agree on how likely it thinks each risk item is to occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1 is very unlikely and 10 is very likely). The group then rates how serious the impact would be if the risk did occur, using a simple scale from 1 to 10 (where 1is little impact and 10 is very large). To use this numbering scheme, first pick out the items that rate 1 and 10, respectively.
Then rate the other items relative to these boundaries. To determine the priority of each risk item, calculate the product of the two values, likelihood and impact. This priority scheme helps push the big risks to the top of the list, and the small risks to the bottom. It is a usual practice to analyze risk either by sensitivity analysis or by probabilistic analysis. In sensitivity analysis a study is done to analyse the changes in the variable values because of a change in one or more of the decision criteria.
In the probability analysis, the frequency of a particular event occurring is determined, based on which it average weighted average value is calculated. Each outcome of an event resulting in a risk situation in a risk analysis process is expressed as a probability. Risk analysis can be performed by calculating the expected value of each alternative and selecting the best alternative. Ex: Now that the group has assigned a priority to each risk, it is ready to select the items to mange. Some projects select a subset to take action upon, while others choose to work on all of Project the items.
To get started, we can select the top 3 risks, or the top 20%, based on the priority calculation. GDM – The Global Delivery Model (GDM) is adopted by an Industry or Business such that it has a capability to plan design, deliver and serve to any Customers or Clients Worldwide with Speed, Accuracy, Economy and Reliability. The key Features of GDM are • Standardization Modularization Minimum Customization Maximum Micro structure Adoption of a Combination of the Greatest Common Multiple and the Least Common Factor of a Large Mass of Microbial Components- )Standardization – Ingenious Design and Development of Components and Features which are like to be accepted by 90% of Worldwide Customers. Global Standards of Design focusing on highly standardized Methods and Processes of manufacture or Development. Adopt Plug and socket Concepts with minimum adaptable joints or Connections. b)Modularization – Product or Solution split up into smallest possible individual Identifiable Entities, with limited Individual Functioning Capability but powerful and robust in Combination with other Modules. c)Minimum Customization – Minimum Changes or Modifications to suit Individual Customers. )Maximum micro structuring – Splitting of the Product Modules further into much smaller entity identifiable more through characteristics rather than application Features. Approach through Standardization of these Microbial Entities even across Multiple Modules. Application of these Microbial Entities to rest within multiple Projects or Products or even as add-ons suit belated Customer Needs. Special Features of GDM Some of the special features of GDM are •Cuts across Geographical and Time Zone Barriers •Unimaginable Speeds of Response and Introduction. •Common Pool of Microbial Components Largely Independent of Skill Sets required at Delivery Stages •Highly automated Processes •Quality Assurance as a Concurrent rather than a Control Process •Near Shore Development, Manufacture and Delivery for better Logistics •Mapping of Economical Zones rather than Geographic Zones •Continuous Floating virtual Inventory to save Time and Efforts. Q. 5 Answer the two parts: a. Importance of data management in project management-Comment. The Role of Effective Data Management in the Success of Project Management Data management consists of conducting activities which facilitate acquiring data, processing it and distributing it.
Acquisition of data is the primary function. To be useful, data should have three important characteristics – timeliness, sufficiency and relevancy. Management of acquisition lies in ensuring that these are satisfied before they are stored for processing and decisions taken on the analysis. There should be data about customers, suppliers, market conditions, new technology, opportunities, human resources, economic activities, government regulations, political upheavals, all of which affect the way you function. Most of the data go on changing because the aforesaid sources have uncertainty inherent in them.
So updating data is a very important aspect of their management. Storing what is relevant in a form that is available to concerned persons is also important. When a project is underway dataflow from all members of the team will be flowing with the progress of activities. The data may be about some shortfalls for which the member is seeking instructions. A project manager will have to analyse them, discover further data from other sources and see how he can use them and take decisions. Many times he will have to inform and seek sanction from top management.
The management will have to study the impact on the overall organisational goals and strategies and convey their decisions to the manager for implementation. For example, Bill of Materials is a very important document in Project Management. It contains details about all materials that go into the project at various stages and has to be continuously updated as all members of the project depend upon it for providing materials for their apportioned areas of execution. Since information is shared by all members, there is an opportunity for utilising some of them when others do not need them.
To ascertain availability at some future point of time, information about orders placed, backlogs, lead times are important for all the members. A proper MIS will take care of all these aspects. ERP packages too help in integrating data from all sources and present them to individual members in the way they require. When all these are done efficiently the project will have no hold ups an assure success. b. What is the significance of reviewing ROI? ROI – Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organization is projected to receive in return for investing money (resources) in a project.
Within the context of the Review Process, the investment would be in an information system development or enhancement project. ROI information is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key checkpoints throughout the project’s lifecycle. ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission performance, reduced cost, increased quality, speed, or flexibility, and increased customer and employee satisfaction. ROI should reflect such risk factors as the project’s technical complexity, the agency’s management capacity, the likelihood of cost overruns, and the consequences of under or nonperformance.
Where appropriate, ROI should reflect actual returns observed through pilot projects and prototypes. ROI should be quantified in terms of dollars and should include a calculation of the breakeven point (BEP), which is the date when the investment begins to generate a positive return. ROI should be recalculated at every major checkpoint of a project to se if the BEP is still on schedule, based on project spending and accomplishments to date. If the project is behind schedule or over budget, the BEP may move out in time? if the project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier.
In either case, the information is important for decision making based on the value of the investment throughout the project lifecycle. Any project that has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key project decision point (i. e. , stage exit) or at least yearly. Exclusions If the detailed data collection, calculation of benefits and costs, and capitalization data from which Return on Investment (ROI) is derived was not required for a particular project, then it may not be realistic or practical to require the retrofit calculation of ROI once the project is added to the Review portfolio.
In such a case, it is recommended that a memorandum of record be developed as a substitute for ROI. The memorandum should provide a brief history of the program, a description of the major benefits realized to date with as much quantitative data as possible, and a summary of the process used to identify and select system enhancements. Some of the major benefits experienced by sites that installed the information system that would be important to include in the memorandum are: a) Decommissioning of mainframe computers b) Reduction/redirection of labour c) Elimination of redundant systems ) Ability to more cost effectively upgrade all sites with one standard upgrade package. In each case above, identify the specific site, systems, and labour involved in determining the cited benefit. Identify any costs or dollar savings that are known or have been estimated. The memorandum will be used as tool for responding to any future audit inquiries on project ROI. For the Project Management Review, it is recommended that the project leader replace the text on the ROI document through – 1) a note stating which stage of its cycle the project is in? 2) A bulleted list of the most important points from the memorandum of record? and (3) a copy of the memorandum of record for the Review repository. In subsequent Reviews of the information system, the ROI slide can be eliminated form the package. There is one notable exception to this guidance. Any internal use software project in the maintenance phase of its lifecycle that adds a new site or undertakes an enhancement or technology refresh that reaches the cost threshold established by Standard will need to satisfy capitalization requirements.
It requires all agencies to capitalize items acquired or developed for internal use if the expected service life is two or more years and its cost meets or exceeds the agency’s threshold for internal use software. The standard requires capitalization of direct and indirect costs, including employee salaries and benefits for both Federal and Contractor employees who materially participate in the Software project. Program managers are considered to be the source of cost information for internal use software projects.
If capitalization data is collected for the project in the future, the project would be expected to calculate and track its ROI. Q. 6 XYZ Company implements CMMI level-03. To make further changes it decides on starting a new division in the organization. It decides to advance the existing project management. What are the steps to be followed by the organization to drive project management to a new horizon? Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a process improvement approach that helps organizations improves their performance. CMMI can be used to guide process improvement across a project, a division, or an entire organization.
CMMI in software engineering and organizational development is a process improvement approach that provides organizations with the essential elements for effective process improvement. CMMI is a trademark owned by Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. According to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI, 2008), CMMI helps “integrate traditionally separate organizational functions, set process improvement goals and priorities, provide guidance for quality processes, and provide a point of reference for appraising current processes.  CMMI currently addresses three areas of interest: 1. Product and service development — CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV), 2. Service establishment, management, and delivery — CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC), and 3. Product and service acquisition — CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ). CMMI was developed by a group of experts from industry, government, and the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. CMMI models provide guidance for developing or improving processes that meet the business goals of an organization.
A CMMI model may also be used as a framework for appraising the process maturity of the organization.  CMMI originated in software engineering but has been highly generalised over the years to embrace other areas of interest, such as the development of hardware products, the delivery of all kinds of services, and the acquisition of products and services. The word “software” does not appear in definitions of CMMI. This generalization of improvement concepts makes CMMI extremely abstract. It is not as specific to software engineering as its predecessor, the Software CMM.
CMMI was developed by the CMMI project, which aimed to improve the usability of maturity models by integrating many different models into one framework. The project consisted of members of industry, government and the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute (SEI). The main sponsors included the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the National Defense Industrial Association. CMMI is the successor of the capability maturity model (CMM) or software CMM. The CMM was developed from 1987 until 1997. In 2002, CMMI Version 1. 1 was released. Version 1. 2 followed in August 2006.
CMMI representation CMMI exists in two representations: continuous and staged. The continuous representation is designed to allow the user to focus on the specific processes that are considered important for the organization’s immediate business objectives, or those to which the organization assigns a high degree of risk. The staged representation is designed to provide a standard sequence of improvements, and can serve as a basis for comparing the maturity of different projects and organizations. The staged representation also provides for an easy migration from the SW-CMM to CMMI. CMMI model framework
Depending on the CMMI constellation (acquisition, services, development) used, the process areas it contains will vary. Key process areas are the areas that will be covered by the organization’s processes. The table below lists the process areas that are present in all CMMI constellations. This collection of eight process areas is called the CMMI Model Framework, or CMF. Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Model Framework (CMF) AbbreviationNameAreaMaturity Level REQMRequirements ManagementEngineering2 PMCProject Monitoring and ControlProject Management2 PPProject PlanningProject Management2
CMConfiguration ManagementSupport2 MAMeasurement and AnalysisSupport2 PPQAProcess and Product Quality AssuranceSupport2 OPDOrganizational Process DefinitionProcess Management3 CARCausal AnalysisSupport5 Maturity Levels There are Five maturity levels. However, maturity level ratings are awarded for levels 2 through 5. Maturity Level 2 – Managed •CM – Configuration Management •MA – Measurement and Analysis •PMC – Project Monitoring and Control •PP – Project Planning •PPQA – Process and Product Quality Assurance •REQM – Requirements Management •SAM – Supplier Agreement Management Maturity Level 3 – Defined DAR – Decision Analysis and Resolution •IPM – Integrated Project Management +IPPD •OPD – Organizational Process Definition +IPPD •OPF – Organizational Process Focus •OT – Organizational Training •PI – Product Integration •RD – Requirements Development •RSKM – Risk Management •TS – Technical Solution •VAL – Validation •VER – Verification Maturity Level 4 – Quantitatively Managed •QPM – Quantitative Project Management •OPP – Organizational Process Performance Maturity Level 5 – Optimizing •CAR – Causal Analysis and Resolution •OID – Organizational Innovation and Deployment CMMI models
CMMI best practices are published in documents called models, each of which addresses a different area of interest. The current release of CMMI, version 1. 2, provides models for three areas of interest: development, acquisition, and services. •CMMI for Development (CMMI-DEV), v1. 2 was released in August 2006. It addresses product and service development processes. •CMMI for Acquisition (CMMI-ACQ), v1. 2 was released in November 2007. It addresses supply chain management, acquisition, and outsourcing processes in government and industry. •CMMI for Services (CMMI-SVC), v1. 2 was released in February 2009.
It addresses guidance for delivering services within an organization and to external customers. •CMMI Product Suite (includes Development, Acquisition, and Services), v1. 3 is expected to be released in 2010. CMMI Version 1. 3—Plans for the Next Version Regardless of which model an organization chooses, CMMI best practices should be adapted by an organization according to its business objectives. Appraisal An organization cannot be certified in CMMI; instead, an organization is appraised. Depending on the type of appraisal, the organization can be awarded a maturity level rating (1-5) or a capability level achievement profile.
Many organizations find value in measuring their progress by conducting an appraisal. Appraisals are typically conducted for one or more of the following reasons: 1. To determine how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices, and to identify areas where improvement can be made 2. To inform external customers and suppliers of how well the organization’s processes compare to CMMI best practices 3. To meet the contractual requirements of one or more customers Appraisals of organizations using a CMMI model must conform to the requirements defined in the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI (ARC) document.
There are three classes of appraisals, A, B and C, which focus on identifying improvement opportunities and comparing the organization’s processes to CMMI best practices. Appraisal teams use a CMMI model and ARC-conformant appraisal method to guide their evaluation of the organization and their reporting of conclusions. The appraisal results can then be used (e. g. , by a process group) to plan improvements for the organization. The Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement (SCAMPI) is an appraisal method that meets all of the ARC requirements.
A class A appraisal is more formal and is the only one that can result in a level rating. Results of an appraisal may be published (if the appraised organization approves) on the CMMI Web site of the SEI: Published SCAMPI Appraisal Results. SCAMPI also supports the conduct of ISO/IEC 15504, also known as SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination), assessments etc. Achieving CMMI compliance The traditional approach that organizations often adopt to achieve compliance with the CMMI involves the establishment of an Engineering Process Group (EPG) and Process Action Teams (PATs).
This approach requires that members of the EPG and PATs be trained in the CMMI, that an informal (SCAMPI C) appraisal be performed, and that process areas be prioritized for improvement. More modern approaches that involve the deployment of commercially available, CMMI-compliant processes, can significantly reduce the time to achieve compliance. SEI has maintained statistics on the “time to move up” for organizations adopting the earlier Software CMM and primarily using the traditional approach. 6] These statistics indicate that, since 1987, the median times to move from Level 1 to Level 2 is 23 months, and from Level 2 to Level 3 is an additional 20 months. These statistics have not been updated for the CMMI. The Software Engineering Institute’s (SEI) Team Software Process methodology and the Capability Maturity Modeling framework can be used to raise the maturity level. Applications The SEI published that 60 organizations measured increases of performance in the categories of cost, schedule, productivity, quality and customer satisfaction. 7] The median increase in performance varied between 14% (customer satisfaction) and 62% (productivity). However, the CMMI model mostly deals with what processes should be implemented, and not so much with how they can be implemented. These results do not guarantee that applying CMMI will increase performance in every organization. A small company with few resources may be less likely to benefit from CMMI; this view is supported by the process maturity profile (page 10). Of the small organizations (