Multiple Sclerosis in Society and Its Effects on Individuals

Scierosis in Society and its effects on individuals News on multiple sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis is a disease usually known as MS, and this affects the central nervous system- the brain and spinal cord. Multiple Sclerosis is when the nerves are not able to communicate with the body. The central nervous system has a myelin sheath covering the axons, which sends the message to the synaptic bulbs for communication to the nerves. “The myelin sheath helps the axons sends its messages rapidly, and once the myelin sheath is affected the nerves aren’t able to correspond with the body. Multiple Sclerosis destroys the myelin sheath by putting patches causing muscle weakness and other symptoms. ”Multiple Sclerosis, a spontaneous disease, can affect a person during its adult years such as the 20s, 30s, and so forth. There is not any particular race or gender that receives it more than the other merely during one’s adult age. It has also been stated that the place where one grows up at can be reason why they are diagnosed with the disease.

Multiple Sclerosis treatment has generated controversy in 2010, as it does not support an etiological role of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency; (Rituximab), a monoclonal antibody used to treat certain types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,( Alemtuzumab), is a humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to CD52, a protein found on the surface of normal and malignant B and T cells, that is used to reduce the numbers of circulating malignant cells of patients who have B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). AB,(Cladribine), The drugs used to treat cancer ultimately depend on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Natalizumab), is the drugs used to treat class for the treatment ultimately depend on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. If a drug cannot cure the alpha(4)-integrin antagonist, the first in its class for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), and( Fingolimod), which have been recently tested in several clinical trials on MS, all inhibit of a group of new oral therapies being developed for MS, an often debilitating disease in which the body’s immune system attacks a fatty immune function, thereby reducing inflammation inside the brain.

An elegant alternative way to treat MS is the induction of a specific immune tolerance, in addition more than 150 years ago by ( Ehrlich). Several attempts have already been made to apply such an antigen-specific therapy in patients with MS. For instance, oral myelin proteins, altered peptide ligands, and intravenous myelin basic protein have all been tested in patients with MS in clinical trials, but showed no or only a modest effect on the course of the disease ( Juryn? zyk M et al). An alternative route for the application of these specific antigens is trans dermally, which has been proven to be efficient in animal models of MS such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (Maciej Juryn? czyk). Co-workers from Lodz and Krakow in Poland used such an approach in 30 patients with relapsing–remitting MS. They applied a mixture of three myelin peptides transdermally: MBP85-99, PLP139-151, and MOG35-55 versus placebo.

The patch with the different antigens was changed once a week for 4 weeks and then once a month for 11 months. “The follow up period was one year. The phenotype of immune cells in the skin was assessed bimmuno histochemistry. ‘The authors also analyzed cell populations in lymph nodes by flow cytometry as well as cytokine production and myelin specific proliferation. The major findings of this study were as follows: the myelin peptides that were applied transdermally activate ddendritic Langer hans cells in the skin; they induced a unique population of granular dendritic cells in local lymph nodes; the myelin peptides induced degeneration of type one, interleukin-10-producing regulatory T cells and suppression of specific auto reactive proliferative responses ;and finally, a suppression of interferon-c and transforming growth factor-b production was found. Conclusions and Comments: As also pointed out in the accompanying editorial by Steinman and Zamvil, this is a very important study, which may have considerable implications for future clinical trials. (Neurol) could indeed demonstrate an immune regulatory potential oftransdermal immunization with the three different myelin peptides in patients with MS. This study was carefully performed.

However, there are some caveats: it was a mono center trial; for an MS trial it was unusual that all subjects completed the one-year trial; it was not mentioned whether the examiners were blinded; we do not have any information so far on the course of the disease in the patients in the treatment and placebo groups or on the MRI findings; and there is no detailed information about the adverse events in the subjects. Despite these caveats, if these findings can be confirmed, It is high time that we initiate multicenter trials to test this elegant approach, which is, s mentioned above, more than 150 years old, but may be really promising if it is effective. Such an approach would be most elegant because it is antigen-specific in contrast to the above mentioned immune suppressive treatments, which have several severe side effects. Conclusions and Comments: The authors concluded from their study that these data argue against an etiologic role of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency-related parenchymal iron deposition in MS.

They also critically discuss the shortcomings of their study: only in direct evidence for iron deposition; an elevation of CSF ferritin is not a specific finding for iron deposition; there were no longitudinal data on CSF ferritin levels from the controls; the study might have been underpowered; and there were no specific brain T2* imaging data which can relate CSF ferritin levels to either parenchymal iron deposition or chronic cerebrospinal venous in sufficiency.

In particular, such an imaging study has to be performed to further evaluate the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency hypothes is. In the accompanying editorial by( Rensburg and Toorn) from South Africa, the relevance of this study is confirmed. The authors of the editorial also mention another clinically important point: if iron levels are low in patients with MS, iron should be supplemented together with antioxidants. This may improve the course of the disease and is not harmful to these

Works cited Van Rensburg, SJ, and Van Toorn (2010), The controversy of CCSVI and iron in multiple sclerosis: is ferritin the key? Goldstain, A. Journal of Family Practice, August 2010. Reder, Anthony T. , MD, August (2010) ,The University of Chicago Medical Center, M x A: a biomarker for predicting multiple sclerosis disease activity Ehrlich, P, His Magic Bullets Revisited Bernhard Witkop Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 143, No. 4 (Dec. , 1999), pp. 40-557 (article consists of 18 pages) Published by: American Philosophical Society Stable URL: http://www. jstor. org/stable/3181987 Retrieved from site November 28,2010. Neurol, Ann. , October (2010), www. pubmed. gov. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis Jurynczyk, Maciej. , Immune regulation of multiple sclerosis by transdermally applied myelin peptides, http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1002/ana. 22219/full, Retrieved December 3,( 2010)

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