Problem : If the Katipunan had prevailed, do you think Aguinaldo could have made it to the top leadership? Why? Basic Facts : Andres Bonifacio founded the KKK or Katipunan Andres Bonifacio Doesn’t have formal education Andres Bonifacio And Emilio Aguinaldo refused to cooperate and aid each other in the battle. Emilio Aguinaldo has successes in the battlefields Participation in the election primarily came from Cavitenos. The other provinces in revolt, such as Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, and Batangas, were not participants.
Emilio Aguinaldo is the one responsible for Andres Bonifacio arrest responsible and execution on May 10, 1897 Cause of the problem The issue of leadership was debated. The Magdiwang faction, led by Bonifacio’s uncle Mariano Alvarez, recognized Bonifacio as supreme leader, being the founder. The Magdalo faction, led by Emilio’s cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, agitated for Emilio Aguinaldo to be the organization’s head because of his successes in the battlefield. Bonifacio meanwhile had had a succession of defeats. Effect of the problem
In order to unite the Katipunan in Cavite, the Magdiwang through Artemio Ricarte and Pio Del Pilar invited Bonifacio, who was fighting in Morong (present-day Rizal) province, to come to Cavite, Aguinaldo’s home ground. On December 31, an assembly was convened in Imus to settle the leadership issue once and for all. The Magdalo insisted on the establishment of revolutionary government to replace the Katipunan and continue the struggle. On the other hand, the Magdiwang favored the Katipunan’s retention, arguing that it was already a government in itself.
The assembly dispersed without a consensus. On March 22, 1897, another meeting was held in Tejeros. It called for the election of officers for the revolutionary government. Bonifacio chaired the election. This convention ended in further conflict and led to the revolution’s demise. Bonifacio called for the election results to be respected. When the voting ended, Bonifacio had lost and the leadership turnover to Aguinaldo, who was away fighting in Pasong Santol. Instead, he was elected to director of the interior but his qualifications were questioned by a Magdalo, Daniel Tirona.
Bonifacio felt insulted and drew his pistol to shoot Tirona had not Artemio Ricarte intervened. Bonifacio declared the election null and void and stomped out in anger. Aguinaldo took his oath of office as president the next day in Santa Cruz de Malabon (present-day Tanza) in Cavite, as did the rest of the officers, except for Andres Bonifacio. In Naic, Bonifacio and his officers created the Naic Military Agreement, establishing a rival government to Aguinaldo’s. It rejected the election at Tejeros and restored Bonifacio as the leader of the revolution.
When Aguinaldo learned of the document, he ordered the arrest of Bonifacio and his soldiers. Colonel Agapito Benzon chanced upon Bonifacio in Limbon. In the subsequent battle, Bonifacio, and his brother Procopio were wounded, while their brother Crispulo was killed. They were taken to Naic to stand trial. The Consejo de Guerra (War Council) sentenced Andres, and Procopio Bonifacio to death on May 10, 1897 for committing sedition and treason.  Aguinaldo commuted the punishment to deportation, but withdrew his decision following pressure from Pio Del Pilar and other officers of the revolution.
On May 10, Colonel Lazaro Macapagal, upon orders from General Mariano Noriel, executed the Bonifacio brothers at the foothills of Mount Buntis,a small mountain near Maragondon. Andres Bonifacio, and his brother were buried in a shallow grave marked only with twigs. Conclusion In my opinion, it was really difficult to choose from Aguinaldo and Bonifacio. But the fact that Bonifacio is the one who founded the Katipunan must have been a considerably enough rationale for him to remain as the leader. It was just because the circle or group of Aguinaldo and members of his class enjoyed privilege status even before the revolution.
They would not allow a victorious president Bonifacio ordering land and wealth distribution as his first decree. ) Had Bonifacio been able to get back to Manila he could have charged Aguinaldo and other Caviteno officers with treason and Philippine history would have taken a very different track. Bonifacio was not allowed to get out of Cavite. He was summarily tried and promptly executed with his brother Procorpio Bonifacio at a mountain in Maragondon, Cavite for the supposed crime of treason. CASE STUDY 2 Topic : The Philippine Revolution
Problem : What was the greatest tragedy of the Philippine Revolution? Basic Facts : Jose Rizal is considered the National Hero Jose Rizal is the martyr of the Philippine Revolution As a political figure, Rizal was the founder of La Liga Filipina, a civic organization that subsequently gave birth to the Katipunan, led by Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Aguinaldo. Jose Rizal’s famous works, (el filibusterismo and noli me tangere) angered both the Spaniards and the hispanicized Filipinos due to their insulting symbolism. In 1896 Rizal was in prison in Fort Santiago
Rizal was sentenced to death Cause of the problem Rizal was arrested en route, imprisoned in Barcelona, and sent back to Manila to stand trial. He was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan and was to be tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy. Effect of the problem Rizal was convicted on all three charges and sentenced to death. He was executed by a firing squad. Conclusion For me, the death of Jose Rizal was the greatest tragedy of the philippine revolution.
He influenced most of our revolutionary leaders through his writings and example although other people believe that he should only be declared a hero not “The national hero. ” Most people believed that Rizal’s greatest legacy is his love for his country as embodied in his writings and the actions that he took. For me personally, Jose Rizal’s greatest legacy was that he lived a full and meaningful life. It did not matter that he lived for only 34 years. He accomplished so much in such a short period of time because he had a vision in his mind and a mission in his heart.
The intensity of such mission and vision translated into action that enabled him not to waste time in any trivial matters but rather devote all of his time to the accomplishment of the mission and vision that he believed was given to him. He is the man who changed the course of the Philippine history. CASE STUDY 3 Topic : The American involvement in the Philippine struggle for freedom Problem : Sensing the American political designs in the Philippines, how did Aguinaldo counteract such aggression? Basic Facts : Aguinaldo was unhappy that the United States would not commit to paper a statement of support for Philippine independence.
Treaty of Paris, at the end of the Spanish-American War, transferred control of the Philippines to the United States. Philippine Government which, on June 2, 1899, proclaimed a Declaration of War against the United States. Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in 1901 and the U. S. government declared the conflict officially over in 1902. The Philippine-American War resulted in massive casualties. Cause of the problem Filipinos initially saw their relationship with the United States as that of two nations joined in a common struggle against Spain.
As allies, Filipinos had provided the American forces with valuable intelligence and military support. However, the United States later distanced itself from the interests of the Filipino insurgents. Effect of the problem The Philippine Declaration of Independence occurred on June 12, 1898, when Filipino revolutionary forces under Aguinaldo (later to become the Philippines’ first Republican President) proclaimed the sovereignty and independence of the Philippine Islands from the colonial rule of Spain after the latter was defeated at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.
The declaration, however, was not recognized by the United States or Spain, as the Spanish government ceded the Philippines to the United States in the 1898 Treaty of Paris, in consideration for an indemnity for Spanish expenses and assets lost. Tensions between the Philippine and the American governments existed because of the conflicting movements for independence and colonization, aggravated by the feelings of betrayal on the part of Aguinaldo. The Malolos Congress declared war on the United States on June 2, 1899, with Pedro Paterno, President of Congress, issuing a Proclamation of War. 28] The Philippine-American war ensued between 1899 and 1902 Conclusion The Philippine-american war rose because the filipinos had become suspicious of the true motives of the United States in going to the Philippines. In fact, they were prevented by the Americans from entering Manila after its fall. Their suspicions were confirmed by the Treaty of Paris under which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. That’s why Emilio Aguinaldo commanded his troops to fight the American troops. Aguinaldo wanted the Philippines to be a fully independent country.