Phonological and Prosodical Study on Cebuano, Waray and Hiligaynon

A Phonological and Prosodical Contrastive Study of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon Submitted by: Pedroza, Kristel Doone Q. Uy, Mary Colleen U. Submitted to: Prof. Ria Parsram Rafael As a requirement in Linguistics 120 First Semester AY 2010-2011 Department of Linguistics University of the Philippines, Diliman October 18, 2010 A Phonological and Prosodical Contrastive Study of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon Pedroza, Kristel Doone Q. Uy, Mary Colleen U. Abstract

Every language constitutes its own sound system, and this sound system is a very important aspect when learning or studying a language. Along with this sound system are the prosodic features of a language. This study is about the phonological system and the prosodic features of three of the Bisayan Languages, namely Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon. The phonological system and the prosodic features of these languages were already studied by Zorc (1975) and Jacobson (1979) but the authors still felt the need to further deepen the scope of their studies.

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Aside from analyzing the basic phonology of the three languages, this study will also tackle the effect of affixation on the prosodic features of the three languages. To be able to study and analyze the said features, the authors used the data gathered from eliciting materials answered by the informants of the study. After the analysis done, the authors were able to present the relevant findings of the study. First is the basic phonetic system of the three languages and their similarities and differences.

Second is the basic description of the prosodic features of the three languages and their similarities and differences. And lastly, the most important of all, are the changes that occur for every language when affixation happens on a morpheme, the specific affixes that contribute to regular stress shift, and their similarities and differences. This signifies that since the languages studied are of a common classification, several similarities would be evident. But, since they are still classified as different languages, they would also have distinct characteristics from each other.

I. Introduction Learning a language begins with the recognition of the different sound systems of the language, because the sense and consequently the understanding of a word depends upon its pronunciation. In the field of linguistics, the study of the sound system of a language is called phonetics. Phonetics provides a systematic study of a language from its smallest element called the segments, which are then classified to consonants and vowels. Embedded in the sound system of a language is what we call the suprasegmentals or the prosodic features of a language.

Suprasegmentals are features associated with stretches larger than the segment, in particular pitch, stress and duration (Gussenhoven, 2001). While it is not the paper’s primary aim to teach a language, this study provides a comparative study of three of the Bisayan languages with regards to their phonological and prosodic structure. A. Background of the Languages The Bisayan languages is a group of Philippine languages heavily distributed in the islands of Visayas, the Bicol Region, and in some parts of Mindanao and Luzon.

Zorc (1975) mentions 36 languages of the Bisayan languages, the Bisayan dialects, together with Tagalog and the Bikol languages as the languages that make up the Central-Philippine Subgroup (McFarland, 1994). This study focuses on three of the Bisayan languages: Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon. McFarland groups Waray and Hiligaynon under the Central Bisayan Subgroup and Cebuano under the South Bisayan Languages. Zorc, on the other hand, separates Waray and Hiligaynon to the Warayan Subgroup and Peripheral Subgroup, respectively, both under the higher order subgroup of Central Bisayan while Cebuano is placed under the Cebuano Subgroup.

Waray (or Waray-Waray) is a Philippine language spoken in the provinces of Samar, Northern Samar, Eastern Samar, Leyte and Biliran. As of the year 2000 census of Ethnologue, it has an estimated 2. 5 million speakers. Some of its dialects are Samar-Leyte, Northern Leyte, Leyte, Utudnon and Baybay. 1 Cebuano (or Sugbuhanon) is a Philippine language spoken in the provinces of Cebu, Negros, Bohol, some parts of Leyte and Samar, and in Mindanao. As of the year 2000 consensus of Ethnologue, it has an estimated 16 million speakers in the Philippines and in 1

Information taken from http://www. ethnologue. com/show_language. asp? code=war, accessed Oct. 14, 2010 other countries, and is the most widely spoken Visayan language. It has four dialects: Cebu, Boholano, Leyte, and Mindanao Visayan. 2 Hiligaynon (or Ilonggo) is a Philippine language spoken in Western Visayas, which includes the Panay Island and Negros Occidental, and in many parts of Mindanao. As of the year 2000 consensus of Ethnologue, it has an estimated 6 million speakers. 3 Figure 1. 0 Distribution of Visayan languages taken from: http://en. wikipilipinas. rg/images/thumb/1/10/Visayan_language_distribution_map. png B. Objective of the Study Generally, the aim of this study is to present a comparative analysis of the phonology and prosody of the Visayan languages Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon. Specifically, the authors would like to find the answers to the following questions: (a) With regards to phonetics, what are the similarities and the differences between these three languages? (b) 2 3 Information taken from http://www. ethnologue. com/show_language. asp? code=ceb, accessed Oct. 3, 2010 Information taken from http://www. thnologue. com/show_language. asp? code=hil, accessed Oct. 3, 2010 How do phonetic features affect the suprasegmental features of speech, specifically stress and length, of the languages? (c) How do the suprasegmental features affect the meaning of different lexical items? (d) How does the morphological process of affixation affect the suprasegmental features for each language? And (e) Is there any uniformity with the phonological changes that take place when affixation has been made and how do we explain them? C. Importance of the Study

This study will be a contribution to the growing knowledge of the linguistic community. It will be able to help other Linguistics students, and even those who are not, understand the languages that will be studied and give additional information to other linguistic organizations like SIL. As this paper deals with the smallest elements of the language, this paper can serve as a strong foundation for those who wish to learn to speak the languages correctly. The data that the authors presented and analyzed may also serve as points to prove or disprove certain theories like Sub-grouping or Phonetic Universals.

And lastly, this may be a stepping stone for a new study on Philippine Languages using the Lexical Conservatism Approach, as this concept seems to be a modern one, and only a few scholars have dealt with it. D. Scope of the Study So as to give a basic description of each language, the study will tackle first the phonetic system of the three languages. This will only include the identification of the phonemes present in each of the languages and the presentation of examples for each phoneme.

The features to be tackled in the comparative analysis of the phonologies of the languages will include the number of phonemes each language has and the phonemes present in each of the language. The prosodic features will be tackled next. The features that will only be included are stress and length. A basic description of the stress and length of each language will be given first then a more detailed description concerning the effects of affixation, and lastly, a comparative analysis of the findings. E. Methodology To be able to answer the questions and fulfill the goal of this study, the esearchers went through the following steps: First, the authors chose 200 unaffixed words from published dictionaries in each language to be studied. Heteronyms which can be subjected to affixation were also included. The words that were chosen came from the core vocabulary of the languages. Second, the informants (1 primary and 1 for checking for each language) translated and read the words the authors have chosen. Third, the informants read the second batch of wordlist which is comprised of 50 words: 2 unaffixed verbs and the other 48 their affixed derivations. The recitations of all the informants were recorded.

After these, the authors proceeded with the presentation and analysis of the data given by the informants. F. Informant Profile This study presented the analysis based on the materials gathered from the primary sources – the informants. There was a maximum of two informants for each of the three languages: the first informant provided the terms of their designated language and the basis for our transcription while the second informant reviewed and validated the information given by the first informant, and gave additional items that the informant believed is helpful for the study.

The primary informant for Cebuano is Ms. Helen Verwin. She is 27 years old from Cebu City, Cebu. She has been living in Sucat, Paranaque for 10 years now but still communicates in her first language with her employers and co-workers. The second informant for Cebuano is Mrs. Judith Medallo, 45 years old from Bogo City, Cebu. She has now been working with our primary informant for Cebuano for 5 months. The primary informant for Waray is one of the authors of this study, Ms. Kristel Doone Q. Pedroza, 18 years old.

English is her first language but she was born and grew up in Tacloban City, Leyte where she was exposed to Waray. She has been living in Quezon City for more than a year now. The second informant for Waray is Ms. Rochelle Granali, 19 years old. She was born and raised in Tacloban City, Leyte and Waray is her first language. She has been living in Quezon City for 3 years now. Our primary informant for Hiligaynon is Ms. Christel Anne Chu-Santos, 18 years old. She was born in Iloilo and lived there for 3 years before moving to General Santos City, South Cotabato, where she continued to use Hiligaynon when ommunicating with her family and relatives. She has now been living in Quezon City for more than a year. The authors failed to find another Hiligaynon speaker who had the time to contribute to the study so the authors used the Hiligaynon-Tagalog Dictionary of Alcantara (1997) to validate the translation and the pronunciation of each entry given by the informant of Hiligaynon. II. Review of Related Literature Jacobson in his work presented the phonemes of 30 Philippine languages, two of which are the focus of the study: Cebuano and Hiligaynon.

The study illustrated a large percentage of similar phonemes which include: /p/, where in Cebuano the allophone [p] of the phoneme /p/ is unreleased while in Hiligaynon the allophone is slightly aspirated, /t/, which also has the same case as that of /p/, /b/ and /d/ which are unreleased in both languages, /k/, /g/, /l/, /s/, /h/, /m/, /n/, /? /, /w/, /y/, /? /, /i/, /a/, and /u/. The allophones included are [s] of the phoneme /s/, [i] of the phoneme /? /, [u] of the phoneme /? /, [? ] of the phoneme /? / in both languages, and [r] of the phoneme /r/ in Hiligaynon. The phonemes /f/, /v/, /ts/, /dz/ and /? are usually found in loan words of Hiligaynon. Together with that are the allophones [e] of the phoneme /? / for Cebuano and [o] of the phoneme /? / in both languages, which are results of contact and trade. The allophones [i] of the phoneme /e/ in Cebuano and [u] of the phoneme /o/ in both languages are the only ones that cannot be found in loan words and trade languages. Lastly, Jacobson presented /ts/ and /dz/ as portmanteau forms that occur in place of the clusters /ts/ and /ds/ in Cebuano. 4 Together with the phones of Hiligaynon and Cebuano, Jacobson also presented the existence of stress and lengthening.

His study illustrated that stress exists in both languages while length doesn’t. Unfortunately, no further explanation followed. The symbols presented were the ones used in the study of Jacobson. While the authors have understood most of the phonological descriptions, they chose not to change any of the symbols used as they might be mistaken and this might result to uncertainty. 4 In Zorc’s work, in an attempt to prove the Bisayan unity, Zorc stated that all Bisayan dialects have penultimate rather than ultimate stress, and considers this an innovation of Bisayan dialects.

With regards to length, Zorc posited that Bisayan dialects except for the Waray group have lost antepenultimate length in the cases of verb prefixes. This phenomenon is parallel to that of Tagalog and Bikolano and is seen as retention of the PPH. Also, affixation and any morphological change may result to stress shift. This can be seen in numerous languages and may be considered universal. Zorc mentioned that Bisayan dialects do not have any enclitic that operates like a suffix as opposed to that of Tagalog but when a morpheme is joined by an enclitic, the enclitic carries the stress. III. Presentation of Data

The information that will be presented in this section is a summary of the phonological construction of the languages being studied. This will be divided into two parts, the first will show the segments of each language and its suprasegmental features using simple morphemes as the basis, and the second part is the change of suprasegmental features once morphophonemic change occurred. A. Base Words 1. Phonetic System a. The Consonants of Cebuano, Waray, and Hiligaynon Shown below are the consonant phonemes present in Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon presented in a phonemic chart, and the examples from each language for each phoneme.

Both Waray and Cebuano have 16 consonant phonemes, namely /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /m/, /n/, /? /, /? /, /r/, /l/, /j/, /w/, /h/, and /? /, while Hiligaynon has 18 consonant phonemes as the phonemes /? / and /? / occur in it. Table 1. 1 The Consonant Phonemes of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon Bilabial Alveolar Nasal Stops Fricatives Trill Glide Approximant Lateral Approximant r j w l p m b t n d ? ? ? k PostPalatal Velar Glottal Alveolar ? g ? h Table 1. 2 Examples of the Consonant Phonemes Cebuano p b t d k g m n ? ? ? ? r l j w ? h /k?.? r? s/ /l?.? ju? / /b??. j? / /t?. g?.? w?? / /? tu.? u/ /? u.? h? w/ /p??.??? /? b?. n? / /? t? n. d?? / /d??. g? n/ /k?.? m? t/ /g?.? m? j/ /s?. n??. n?? / /? du?. g? n/ /?? m/ ———-‘rake’ ‘far’ ‘girl’ ‘old’ ‘right’ ‘thirsty’ /hu.? r? m/ /l?.??? j/ /p?.? t? j/ /w?.? l? / /k?.? t?? / /h??. mut/ ‘leg’ ‘to stand’ ‘to run’ ‘hand’ ‘small’ ‘clothing’ ‘ear’ ‘nine’ /p?.? t?? / /tu?. n?? / /d??. k?? / /k?.? w? / /gu. t??.? j/ /m?.? t?? / /d??. h? n/ /? l??. k? d/ /???.??? / Waray ‘seven’ ‘clothing’ ‘earth’ ‘big’ ‘movement’ ‘small’ ‘eyes’ ‘leaf’ ‘to sit’ ‘correct’ ———-‘borrow’ ‘to swim’ ‘dead’ ‘left’ ‘we’ ‘smell’ Hiligaynon /? pu?. k?? / /b?.? s?? / /? tug. n? w/ /du?. t?? / /k?. b?.? l? / /? w?. p? / /m?.? n? k/ /t?.? n? n/ /???. l? n/ /?? / /??? k. t? / /?? u. t? j/ /s?.? r? / /pu.? l? / /g?.? m? j/ /bw? s/ /b?.? s?? / /? h? k. w? t/ ‘to sit’ ‘wet’ ‘cold’ ‘earth’ ‘to know’ ‘beautiful’ ‘chicken’ ‘all’ ‘name’ ‘he/she/it’ ‘correct’ ‘small’ ‘to close’ ‘red’ ‘few’ ‘tomorrow ‘wet’ ‘to carry’ ‘husband’ /b??. d?? / /??. m?.? h? n/ ‘father’ b. The Vowels of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon Shown below are the vowel phonemes of Waray, Cebuano, and Hiligaynon presented in a vowel chart, and the examples from each language for each phoneme. Both Waray and Cebuano have 4 vowel phonemes, namely /? /, /? /, /u/, and /? , while Hiligaynon has 6 vowel phonemes, as the phonemes /? / and /? / occur in it. Table 2. 1 The Vowel Phonemes of Waray, Cebuano and Hiligaynon Front Close Near close Central Back u ? ? Close mid Open mid Open ? ? ? Table 2. 2 Examples of the Vowel Phonemes Cebuano ? u ? ? ? ? /t?.??? l/ /? u.? l? t/ /?.? n? m/ ‘foot’ ‘grey’ /s?.? p? t/ /lu.? p? d/ /???. r? n/ ———-Waray ‘beside’ ‘to fly’ ‘to swim’ ‘name’ Hiligaynon /? h?. m?? / /? hu. l? g/ /? t? k. l? d/ /? k? r. n? / /su.? b?? / ‘to do’ ‘movement’ ‘to push’ ‘meat’ ‘today’ ‘to drink’ /l?.??? j/ /?. m?.? h? n/ ‘father’ ———– /g?.? b? d. l? k/ ‘shiny’ 2. Prosodic Features a.

The Prosodic Features of Cebuano Table 3. 0 Cebuano Heteronyms ‘thread’ ‘poison’ ‘to spill’ ‘spendthrift’ ‘sugar cane’ ‘pipe’ /h?.? l? / /? h?. l? / /? j?. b? / /j?.? b? / /tu.? b? / /? tu. b? / ‘to go with’ ‘white hair’ ‘to come down’ ‘to win’ ‘crippled’ ‘corncob’ /? u.? b? n/ /?? u. b? n/ /m?.? n?. ug/ /m?. n?.? ug/ /? p?. k? w/ /p?.? k? w/ The words presented above are some of the heteronyms collected by the authors. A pair presents similar forms, but a change in stress placement changes the word’s meaning. With stress placement as their only difference, the authors could safely say that stress of Cebuano is phonemic.

The stress placement of Cebuano words is usually found in the penultimate syllable. Most of the simple morphemes with three to four syllables still retain the regularity of a penultimate stress placement. However, there are also exceptions to this rule as some of the words gathered has ultimate stress placement. Cebuano words carry length. Like stress, vowel lengthening is regularly found in the penultimate syllable. A lengthened syllable also signifies that stress is also carried in that syllable. However, the presence or the absence of vowel lengthening in a single word does not result to a change in meaning. . The Prosodic Features of Waray Stress in Waray is phonemic. A change in stress placement results to a change in meaning. The words presented below are some of the heteronyms found wherein stress placement is the only difference. Table 4. 1 Waray Heteronyms with Different Stress Placement ‘to smell’ ‘to smell’ /h?.? m? t/ /? h?. m? t/ ‘to study’ ‘to cook rice’ /tu.?? n/ /tu.? n/ ‘to know’ ‘agreement’ /s?.? b? t/ /? s?. b? t/ ‘floor’ ‘river’ /s?.? l?? / /? s?. l? g/ However, there are words that have different meanings but are similar both in form and stress placement.

Waray speakers distinguish the meaning of these words based on the context of the words and how they are used in the sentence. The words presented below are some of the heteronyms found wherein stress placement is similar but the meanings are different. Table 4. 2 Waray Heteronyms with Similar Stress Placement ‘sun’ ‘day’ ‘how many? ’ ‘some’ /?? d. l? w/ /?? d. l? w/ /p?.? r? / /p?.? r? / ‘object’ ‘to put down’ / bu.? t?? / / bu.? t?? / Most Waray words carry their stress in the penultimate syllable. But, there are still exceptions to the rule as there are words that carry their stress in the ultimate and antepenultimate syllable.

Vowel lengthening on the other hand is found in the penultimate syllable only. A lengthened syllable also signifies that stress falls on that syllable. c. The Prosodic Features of Hiligaynon Stress in Hiligaynon is phonemic. Shown below are some of the heteronyms found that have similar forms but different stress placement and different meanings. Table 5. 1 Hiligaynon Heteronyms with Different Stress Placement ‘fire’ ‘far’ ‘tree’ ‘full’ /k?? l?. j? / /k?. l?.? j?? / /? pu. n?? / /pu.? n?? / ‘hunger’ ‘hungry’ ‘other’ ‘bad’ /? gu. t? m/ /gu.? t? m/ /l?.??? n/ /? l?.?? n/

However, there are words with similar forms and similar stress placement but with different meanings. Show below are some of the heteronyms found with similar stress placement but with different meanings. Table 5. 2 Hiligaynon Heteronyms with Similar Stress Placement ‘day’ ‘sun’ ‘to count’ ‘to think’ /??? d. l? w/ /??? d. l? w/ /??. s? p/ /??. s? p/ ‘father’ ‘master’ /???. m? / /???. m? / Stress of Hiligaynon words generally falls on the penultimate syllable. But there are still many words whose stress also falls on the ultimate and even the antepenultimate syllable.

Concerning words with four or more syllables, stress falls on the penultimate or ultimate syllable. Hiligaynon words carry length. Like stress, lengthened syllables are often the penultimate syllable, but it can also be the ultimate syllable. When a syllable is lengthened, the stress automatically falls on that syllable. B. Affixed Words I. Cebuano When Cebuano words are affixed, there is a tendency to stress shift. The stress of the new formed items usually depends on the base word or on the affix added. Table 6. 1 Cebuano Prefixes that Do Not Contribute to Stress Shift /? t?. w? g/ /mu-/ /n?? -/ /n? / /mu.? t?. w? g/ /n??.? t?. w? g/ /n?.? t?. w? g/ /? u.? b? n/ /mu.? u.? b? n/ /n??.? u.? b? n/ /n?.? u.? b? n/ The affixes cited above are the examples of affixes that do not contribute to stress shift. That is, regardless of affixation, stress is still placed on the stressed syllable of the base word. While the affixes above do not result to the shift in stress, there are affixes that contribute to the order of the placement of stress. These affixes are ka-, nag-, mag- and gi-. The first three affixes place the stress in the penultimate syllable while gi- positions stress in the ultimate syllable.

Table 6. 2 Cebuano Prefixes that Contribute to Certain Stress Placement /k? -/ /n? g-/ /m? g-/ /g? -/ /? t?. w? g/ —–/n? g.? t?. w? g /m? g.? t?. w? g/ /g?. t?.? w? g/ /? u.? b? n/ /k?.?? u. b? n/ /n? g.? u. b? n/ /m? g.? u. b? n/ /g?.? u.? b? n/ When suffixes are added, the stress property of the base word is copied. This means that if the base word has its stress on the penultimate syllable, then the stress of the newly affixed word is also in the penultimate syllable but not necessarily on the same syllable as that of the base word. Table 6. 3 Cebuano Suffixes /? ?. w? g/ /-? / /-? / /-? n/ /t?.? w?. g? / /t?.? w?. g? / /t?.? w?. g? n/ /? u.? b? n/ /? u. b?.? n? / /? u. b?.? n? / /? u. b?.? n? n/ Affixation in Cebuano is not confined with using only one affix at a time. When two or more affixes are used, there is always one affix that influences the stress placement more than the other. An example of this is when the affix pa5- is used with mag-, nag-, and gi-. The affix pa5- cancels out the stress property and places the stress back to the stressed syllable of the base word. Table 6. 4 Cebuano Prefixes with the Affix -pa/? ?. w? g/ —–/n? g. p?.? t?. w? g/ /m? g. p?.? t?. w? g/ /g?. p?.? t?. w? g/ /? u.? b? n/ —–/n? g. p?.? u.? b? n/ /m? g. p?.? u.? b? n/ /g?. p?.? u.? b? n/ /k? -/ + /-p? -/ /n? g-/ + /-p? -/ /m? g-/ + /-p? -/ /g? -/ + /-p? -/ When a suffix is used with other affixes, the stress property of the new item is dictated and influenced by the suffix. Table 6. 5 Cebuano Prefixes with Suffixes 5 The affix pa- cannot be used alone, it is usually found together with the prefixes mag-, nag-, gi- and suffixes. /? t?. w? g/ /g? -/ + /-? n/ /p? -/ + /-? / /g?. t?.? w?. g? / /p?. t?.? w?. g? / /? u.? b? n/ /g?.? u. b?.? n? n/ /p?.? u. b?.? n? / /n? -/ +/-? n/ /n?. t?.? w?. g? n/ /n?.? u. b?.? n? n/ II. Waray Stress shift in Waray is influenced by three aspects: the base word, the morphophonemic change the word went through due to affixation, and the type of word the affix brought about. When a word whose accent is at the penultimate syllable undergoes affixation, stress shift does not occur, regardless of the type or the number of affixes used. Shown below are some of the words whose stress is at the penultimate syllable. Table 7. Waray Words with Stress at the Penultimate Syllable /? t?. w?? / /?? n. t?.? t?. w?? / /p?. t?.? w?.?? / /k?. t?.? t?. w?? / /m?.? t?. w?? / /? b?. s? / /?? n.? b?. s? / /p?.? b?. s? / /n??.? b?. s? / /m?.? b?. s? / /? l??. kud/ /?? n. p?.? l??. kud/ /n?.? l??. kud/ /m?.? l??. kud/ /p?.? l??. ku. r? / When words with stress on ultimate syllable are joined together with an affix, three of the scenarios may occur. First, the stress property of the base word is retained; second, when affixation occurred followed by partial reduplication, stress is placed on the first reduplicated syllable.

The reduplicated syllable may come from the initial syllable of the base word, or from another affix; and third, when the affix used results to a change in the part of speech, for example from verb to noun or adjective, the stress is placed on the penultimate syllable. The presence of the stress in the penultimate syllable in nouns and adjectives is an observable regularity in Waray. Shown below are some of the words whose stress is at the ultimate syllable. The verb used is /? u.? p? d/. Table 7. 2 Waray Words with Stress at the Ultimate Syllable Affixation /m?.? u.? p? d/ Affixation with Reduplication /m?.?? .? up. d? n/ Change in Category /k?.?? u. p? d/ (Verb to Noun) /n? g. u.? p? d/ /n?.? u.? p? d/ /g? n.? u.? p? d/ /n? g.? p?. p?.? u. p? d/ /n?.? k?. k?.? u. p? d/ /g? n.? p?. p?.? u. p? d/ —————- III. Hiligaynon Affixation in Hiligaynon contributes to stress shift. The resulting placement of stress often depends on the affix added and/or what kind of affix it is. When a prefix is added to a morpheme, the stress usually shifts to the prefix added. Shown below are some of the prefixes and examples. Table 8. 1 Hiligaynon Prefixes that Become Stressed /t?.? w? g/ /g? n-/ /n? g-/ /m? -/ /g? / /? g? n. t?. wag/ /? n? g. t?. w? g/ /? m?. t?. w? g/ —–/? u.? p? d/ /? g? n.? u. p? d/ /? n? g.? u. p? d/ /? m?.? u. p? d/ /? g?.? u. p? d/ However, stress can also fall on the ultimate syllable of the affixed morpheme as shown below. The affixes added may also be pointed out as the affixes that can contribute to the retention of stress placement. Table 8. 2 Hiligaynon Prefixes that Contribute to Retention of Stress /t?.? w? g/ /p? -/ /p?. t?.? w? g/ /? u.? p? d/ /p?.? u.? p? d/ /n? -/ —— /n?.? u.? p? d/ When multiple prefixes are added, stress still usually falls on the first prefix added.

Shown below are the examples. Table 8. 3 Multiple Hiligaynon Prefixes with Stress on First Syllable /t?.? w? g/ /g? n-/ + /-p? -/ /n? g-/ + /-p? -/ /n? -/ + /-g? -/ /n? -/ + /-k? -/ /g? -/ + /-n? -/ + /-p? / But, stress can also fall on the second prefix added. An example is shown below. Table 8. 4 Multiple Hiligaynon Prefixes with Stress on Second Syllable /t?.? w? g/ /n? -/ + /-p? / Suffixes can also be added to morphemes. Note that when suffixes are added, the morphophonemic change deletion happens to the base morpheme before the suffix is added to it.

Stress usually falls on the suffix added or, in the case of multiple suffixes, on the ultimate syllable. Some examples are shown below. Table 8. 5 Hiligaynon Suffixes /t?.? w? g/ /-? n/ /t? w.? g? n/ /? u.? p? d/ ———-/? u.? p? d/ /n?.? p?.? u. p? d/ /? g? n. p?. t?. w? g/ /? n? g. p?. t?. w? g/ /? n?. g?. t?. w? g/ /? n?. k?. t?. w? g/ —–/? u.? p? d/ /? g? n. p?.? u. p? d/ /? n? g. p?.? u. p? d/ ———-/? g?. n?. p?.? u. p? d/ /-? n/ /-? n-/ + /-? j/ ———– /? up.? d? n/ /? up. d?.? n? j/ Interestingly, a minimal pair with suffixes was found by the authors.

Shown below are the two words that differ in stress placement and meanings. Table 8. 6 Hiligaynon Heteronym with Suffix /? u.? p? d/ ‘samahan’ ‘sasamahan’ /? up.? d? n/ /?? up. d? n/ When both prefixes and suffixes are added to a morpheme, stress placement can vary. Sometimes it can fall on the prefix added as shown below. Table 8. 7 Multiple Hiligaynon Affixes with Stress on First Syllable /t?.? w? g/ / g? n -/ + /-? n/ /n? -/ + /-g? -/ + /-? n-/ + /-? j/ /? g? n. t? w. g? n/ —–/? u.? p? d/ —–/? n?. g?.? up. d?. n? j/ It can also fall on the ultimate syllable as shown below. Table 8. Multiple Hiligaynon Affixes with Stress on Ultimate Syllable /t?.? w? g/ /n? g-/ + /-? n-/ + /-? j/ /n? g. t? w. g?.? n? j/ /? u.? p? d/ /n? g.? up. d?.? n? j/ /m? g.? up. d?.? n? j/ /g?.? up. d?.? n? j/ /m? g-/ + /-? n-/ + /-? j/ /m? g. t? w. g?.? n? j/ /g? -/ + /-? n-/ + /-? j/ —— Lastly, it can also fall on the penultimate syllable as shown below. Table 8. 9 Multiple Hiligaynon Affixes with Stress on Penultimate Syllable /t?.? w? g/ /g? -/ + /-n? -/ + /-? n/ /m? -/ + /-? n/ /p? -/ + /-? / /g?. n?.? t? w. g? n/ ———– /? u.? p? d/ /g?. n?.?? up. d? n/ /m?.? up. d? n/ /p?.?? p. d? / IV. Conclusion The data presented above are a number of lexical items found in the vocabulary of the languages being studied. These lexical items showed the different phonemes that exist in these three languages. Cebuano and Waray share the same consonants and vowels while Hiligaynon differs as it has two other consonants: [? ] and [? ], and two other vowels: [? ] and [? ]. The segments presented in this paper are very close to that of Jacobson’s paper, although there are differences between the vowel system presented in Jacobson’s study and from the one presented in this paper.

These differences may be accounted for by the presence of lexical items that are results of contact and trade. It was stated earlier that embedded in the sound system of the languages are its suprasegmental features, and this paper focused at the stress and length of all three languages. The authors wrote earlier that stress is regularly found on the penultimate syllable of all languages in focus. This being the general rule means that lexical items whose stress is located at the ultimate and antepenultimate syllable is considered exceptions to the rule.

All three languages carry length. When a syllable is lengthened, the stress of the word goes together with it. Length, just like stress, is usually found in the penultimate syllable. Hiligaynon however, carries length in both the penultimate and the ultimate syllable, unlike in Cebuano and Waray. Stress is phonemic as the stress placement of a word affects the meaning of the lexical item. This was seen in the heteronyms, words of similar forms but with different meanings whose stress placement is also different, found by the authors.

While stress is a factor to a word’s meaning, length and its presence or absence does not result to a difference in meaning in all three languages. When a word has undergone morphophonemic changes, there are other changes that usually take place. This paper focused on affixation and its effects on stress. Stress shift is observable in all three languages, but each language has its own unique property and explanation for stress shift. The paper mentioned some of the factors that influence stress shift. The first factor is the base word.

All three languages have words that have undergone affixation but did not undergo stress shift. This occurrence is usually found in Waray, wherein the stressed syllable is retained even if the word has undergone affixation. Another factor is the affix or affixes added. Both Cebuano and Hiligaynon exhibit regular stress shift depending on the kind of affix or affixes added on the base morpheme. There are affixes that can retain the original stressed syllable of the construction such as the Cebuano affixes mu-, ning- and na-, and the Hiligaynon affixes pa- and na-.

There are also other affixes that dictate the placement of stress such as the Cebuano affixes ka-, nag-, mag- and gi-, and the Hiligaynon affixes gin-, nag-, ma- and ga-. Cebuano suffixes copy the stress placement of the base word, that is, if a base word has its stress on the ultimate syllable then the affixed word will carry the stress on the ultimate syllable and the same goes with words that have the stress on the penultimate syllable, while Hiligaynon suffixes carry the stress of the word. Another factor for stress shift is the peripheral morphophonemic changes that occurred together with affixation.

This is seen in Waray wherein a word that has undergone affixation and reduplication usually finds its stress on the initial reduplicated syllable. The last factor is the change in category of the word. That is, when an affixed word results to a change in part of speech, the constructed word carries the stress property of the part of speech it belongs to as seen in Waray. Appendix A. Cebuano Wordlist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

English Word Animal Ear Earth Egg Eye Father Fire Flower Fruit Foot Mat Hair Hand Head Clothing Day Dog Heart Husband House Leaf Body Blood Bird Back Year Woman Wind Wife Cebuano Translation Animal Dunggan Yuta Itlog Mata Amahan Sunog Buwak Prutas Teel Banig Buhok Kamut Ulo Sinina Adlaw Iro Dughan Bana Bay Dahon Lawas Dugo Langgam Likud Tuig Bayi Hangin Asawa Phonemic Transcription /??. n?.? m? l/ /? du?.?? n/ /? j?. t? / /??? t. l?? / /m?.? t? / /?. m?.? h? n/ /? su. n?? / /? bu. w? k/ /? pru. t? s/ /t?.??? l/ /b?.? n?? / /bu.? h? k/ /k?.? m? t/ /?? u. l? / /s?.? n??. n? / /??? d. l? w/ /??. r? / /? du?. h? n/ /? b?. n? / /b? / /? d??. h? n/ /? l??. w? s/ /du.? g? / /? l??.?? m/ /l?.? kud/ /tu.??? / /? b??. j? / /? h??.?? n/ /??.? s?. w? / 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. Water Tree Tooth Tongue Sun Stone Snake Sky Sister Seed Sea left(hand) man/male leg child chicken meat/flesh moon mother mountain mouth name bone brother night nose person rain right(side) river salt One Tubig Puno Ngipun Dila Adlaw Bato Ahas Langit Igsu-on Lisu Dagat Wala Laki Pa-a Bata manok Unud Buwan Inahan Bukid Baba Ngalan Bukog Igsu-on Gabi’i Ilong Tawo Uwan To-o Suba Asin Usa ? tu. b?? / /? pu. n? / /???. p? n/ /? d?. l? / /?? d. l? w/ /b?.? t? / /???. h? s/ /? l?.?? t/ /???.? su.?? n/ /? l?. su/ /? d?.?? t/ /w?.? l? / /? l?? k? / /? p?.?? / /? b?. t? / /m?.? n? k/ /? u.? n? d/ /? bu. w? n/ /??. n?.? h? n/ /? bu. k? d/ /? b?. b? / /???. l? n/ /bu.? k?? / /???.? su.?? n/ /??.? b?.?? / /??.? l?? / /? t?. w? / /?? u. w? n/ /? tu.? u/ /su.? b? / /?.? s? n/ /? u.? s? / 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93.

Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten And In Not With If What When Where At Because How Why Today Tomorrow All Bad Beautiful Big Good Old Right/correct Thirsty Destroyed Duha Tulo Upat Lima Unum Pito Walo Syam Pulo Ug Sulod Di Ug/ uban Kung Unsa Kanus-a Asa Sa Kay Unsa-on Ngano Karon Ugma Tanan Lain Gwapa Daku But’an Tiguwang Tama/ ma-u Uhaw Guba /du.? h? / /tu.? l? / /? u.? p? t/ /l?.? m? / /? u.? n? m/ /p?.? t? / /w?.? l? / /?? m/ /? pu?. l? / /? u? / /su.? l? d/ /d? / /? u? / /? u.? b? n/ /ku? / /?? un. s? / /k?.? nus.?? / /???. s? / /s? / /k? j/ /? un.? s?.?? n/ /???. n? / /k?.? r? n/ /?? u?. m? / /t?.? ? n/ /? l?.?? n/ /?? w?. p? / /d?.? k? / /? but.?? n/ /t?.? u.? w?? / /? t?. m? / /m?.?? u/ /? u.? h? w/ /? u.? b? / 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. Tired Black Lady White Red Wet Kapuy Itum Daga Puti Pula Basa Gamay Daghan Du-ul Layu Gamay Gamay Bati Igang Tugnaw Hugaw Limpyo Punu Way sud Sunud Sayun Lisud Ako Kami Ikaw Kamu Siya Sila Kagat Alsa hinumdum Ginhawa /? k?. p? j/ /??.? t? m/ /? d???? / /pu.? t? / /pu.? l? / /b?.? s? / /??.? m? j/ /? d??. h? n/ /du.?? ul/ /l?.? ju/ /??.? m? j/ /??.? m? j/ /b?.? t? / /???.??? / /? tu?. n? w/ /? hu.?? w/ /? l? m. pj? / /pu.? n? / /w? j ? su? d/ /su.? n? d/ /s?.? jun/ /l?.? ud/ /??.? ku/ /k?.? m? / /??.? k? w/ /ka.? mu/ /s?.? j? / /s?.? l? / /k?.??? t/ /??? l. s? / /h?.? num. dum/ /?? n.? h?. w? / 100. Few 101. Many 102. Near 103. Far 104. Small 105. Some 106. Ugly 107. Warm 108. Cold 109. Dirty 110. Clean 111. Full 112. Empty 113. Next 114. Easy 115. Difficult 116. I 117. We 118. You (sing) 119. You (pl) 120. He/she it 121. They 122. To bite 123. To carry 124. To remember 125. To breathe 126. To burn 127. To call 128. To die 129. To quite down 130. To know 131. To sing 132. To sit 133. To sleep 134. To smell 135. To stand 136. To swim 137. To think 138. To use 139. To walk 140.

To wash 141. To work 142. To write 143. To shout 144. To play 145. To go with 146. To sleep 147. To rain 148. To read 149. To run 150. To say 151. To see 152. To disturb 153. To kill 154. To laugh 155. To live 156. To change 157. To fly Sunug Tawag Patay Hilom Kabalu Kanta Lingkod Tug Simhut Tindug langoy Huna-huna Gamit Lakaw Laba/ hugas Trabaho Suwat Shagit Duwa Uban Tug Uwan Basa Dagan Ingon Kita Samuk Patay Tawa Buhi Baylo Lupad /? su. n?? / /? t?. w?? / /p?.? t? j/ /? h??. l? m/ /k?. b?.? l? / /? k? n. t? / /? l??. k? d/ /t?? / /? s? m. hut/ /? t? n. d?? / /l?.??? j/ /hu. n?.? hu. n? / /? g?. m? t/ /l?.? ? w/ /l?.? b? / /tr?.? b?. h? / /su.? w? t/ /???.?? t/ /? du. w? / /? u.? b? n/ /tu?? / /?? u. w? n/ /? b?. s? / /? d?.?? n/ /??.??? n/ /? k?. t? / /? s?. m? k/ /p?.? t? j/ /? t?. w? / /? bu. h? / /? b? j. l? / /lu.? p? d/ 158. To give 159. To go 160. To hear 161. To hold/take 162. To do 163. To drink 164. To eat 165. To fight 166. To die 167. To love 168. To climb 169. To close 170. To cook 171. To go to meet 172. Ghost 173. To announce 174. Food for pigs 175. Rake 176. Dry 177. To hear 178. Honor 179. Move 180. Be active 181. Thread 182. Poison 183. One 184. To raise 185. Discrepit 186. Dried out 187.

To come down 188. To win 189. Crippled Hatag Lakaw/ adtu Dungug Gunit Himo Inom Kan-un Away Patay Gugma Saka Sirado Luto Abat Abat Bahog Bahog Karas Karas Dungog Dungog Gunok Gunok Hilo Hilo Isa Isa Lagas Lagas Manaug Manaug Pakaw /? h?. t?? / /l?.? k? w/ /??? d. tu/ /du.???? / /? gu. n? t/ /? h?. m? / /??.? n? m/ /? k? n. un/ /???. w? j/ /p?.? t? j/ /?? u?. m? / /? s?. k? / /s?.? r?. d? / /? lu. t? / /???. b? t/ /??.? b? t/ /? b?. h?? / /b?.? h?? / /k?.? r? s/ /? k?. r? s/ /du.???? / /? du.??? / /?? u. n? k/ /? u.? n? k/ /h?.? l? / /? h?. l? / /??.? s? / /???. s? / /l?.??? s/ /? l?.?? s/ /m?.? n?. u? / /m?. n?.? ? / /? p?. k? w/ 190. Corncob 191. To glide 192. Jellyfish 193. Sugar cane 194. Pipe 195. Greey 196. To become grouchy 197. To spill 198. spendthrift 199. To go with 200. White hair Pakaw Sabay Sabay Tubo Tubo Ulit Ulit Yabo Yabo Uban Uban /p?.? k? w/ /s?.? b? j/ /? s?. b? j/ /tu.? b? / /? tu. b? / /? u.? l? t /?? u. l? t/ /? j?. b? / /j?.? b? / /? u.? b? n/ /?? u. b? n/ Verb 201. tawag 202. Tinawag 203. Pinatawag 204. Ipinatawag 205. Tumawag 206. Nagpatawag 207. Tatawag 208. Tumatawag 209. Natawagan 210. Natawag 211. Tinawagan 212. Nakapagtawag 213. Nagtawagan 214. Tinatawagan 215. Patawag 216. Katatawag 217.

Tatawagin 218. Magtatawagan 219. Sama 220. Sama-sama 221. Samahan 222. Kasamahan 223. Sasama 224. Sumama 225. Pinasama 226. Nagpasama 227. Magsama 228. Magkasama 229. Sinasamahan 230. Nagsama 231. nasama 232. Kasama Cebuano Translation Tawag Gitawag Gipatawag Gipatawag Ningtawag —–Mutawag —–Natawagan Natawag Gitawagan Nakatawag ———-Patawagi Ningtawag Mutawag —–Uban Uban-uban Ubanan kauban Muuban Ninguban Gipauban Nagpauban Maguban Nagkauban/magkauban Giubanan Naguban Nauban kauban Phonemic Transcription /? t?. w?? / /??. t?.? w?? / /??. p?. t?.? w?? / /??. p?. t?.? w?? / /n??.? t?. w?? / —–/mu.? ?. w?? / —–/n?. t?.? w?.?? n/ /n?.? t?. w?? / /??. t?.? w?.?? n/ /n?. k?. t?.? w?? / ———-/p?. t?.? w?.?? / /n??.? t?. w?? / /mu.? t?. w?? / —–/? u.? b? n/ /? u. b? n.?? u. b? n/ /? u. b?.? n? n/ /k?.?? u. b? n/ /mu.? u.? b? n/ /n??.? u.? b? n/ /??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /n??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /m??.?? u. ban/ /n?? ,k?.?? u. b? n/ /??.? u. b?.? n? n/ /n??.?? u. b? n/ /n?.? u.? b? n/ /k?.?? u. b? n/ 233. Nagsama-sama 234. pasama 235. Pinapasama 236. masasamahan 237. Sumasama 238. Nakikisama 239. Nagsasamahan 240. Masamahan 241. Isinama 242. Napasama 243. Pagsasama 244. Sinama 245. Sinasama 246. Sasamahan 247.

Pasamahin 248. Magkakasama 249. magsasama 250. nakasama Naguban-uban Magpauban/ pauban Gipauban Maubanan Miuban Makiguban Managkauban Maubanan Gipauban/giuban Nauban Pag-uban Giuban Gipauban Ubanan Paubana Magkauban Maguban Nakauban /n??.? u. b? n.?? u. b? n/ /m??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /m?.? u. b?.? n? n/ /m?.? u.? b? n/ /m?. k??.?? u. b? n/ /m?. n??. k?.?? u. b? n/ /m?.? u. b?.? n? n/ /??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /n?.? u.? b? n/ /p??.?? u. b? n/ /??.? u.? b? n/ /??. p?.? u.? b? n/ /? u. b?.? n? n/ /p?.? u. b?.? n? / /m??. k?.?? u. b? n/ /m??.?? u. b? n/ /n?. k?.? u.? b? n/ Appendix B. Waray Wordlist 1. 2. . 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. English Word animal Ear Earth Egg Eye Revenge Add Flower Fruit Foot Grass Hair Hand Head Clothing Value Dog Heart Husband House leaf Body Blood Bird Back Year Woman Wind Wife Water Waray Term Animal Talinga Tuna Bunay Mata Bulus Dugang Bukad Prutas Ti-il Banwa Buhok Kamut Ulo Bado balor Ayam Kasingkasing Asawa Balay Dahon Lawas Dugo Tamsi Likud Tuig Babayi Hangin Asawa Tubig Phonemic transcription /??. n?.? m? l/ /t?.? l??.?? / /? t?. n? / /b?.? naj/ /m?.? t?? / /b?.? l? s/ /? du.??? / /b?.? k? d/ /? pru. ? s/ /t?.??? l/ /? b? n. wa/ /b?.? h? k/ /k?.? m? t/ /?? u. l? / /? b??. d?? / /b?.? l? r/ /???. j? m/ /k?. s??.? k?. s?? / /??.? s?. w? / /b?.? l? j/ /? d??. h? n/ /? l??. was/ /du.?? / /? t? m. s? / /l?.? k? d/ /? tu.?? / /b?.? b?. j? / /? h?.?? n/ /??.? s?. w? / /? tu. b?? / 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. Shiny Kiss Snore Tooth Tongue Rice stone Snake Sky Sister Seed sea left(hand) man/male leg child chicken meat/flesh moon mother mountain mouth name bone brother night nose person rain right(side) sugar salt

Mainggat Haruk Hagong Ngipun Dila bugas Bato Sawa Langit Bugto Liso Dagat Wala Lalaki Bitiis Bata Manok Karne Bulan Nanay Bukid Baba Ngaran Bukog Bugto Gab-i Irong Tawo Uran To-o Asukar Asin /m?.????.?? t/ /h?.? ruk/ /? h??.??? / /???. p? n/ /? d?. l? / /bu.? g? s/ /b?.? t? / /s?.? w? / /? l?.?? t/ /? bu?. t? / /? l?. s? / /? d?.?? t/ /w?.? l? / /l?.? l?. k? / /b?.? t?.? s/ /? b?. t? / /m?.? n? k/ /? k? r. n? / /? b?. l? n/ /? n?. n? j/ /? b?. k? d/ /? ba. ba/ /???. r? n/ /bu.? k?? / /? bu?. t? / /??? b.?? / /???. r?? / /? t?. w? / /? u.? r? n/ /? tu.? u/ /??.? s?. k? r/ /??.? s? n/ 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 2. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten And In Not With If What When Where At This Because how Why Today Tomorrow All Interchange Beautiful Big Good Old Right/correct Usa Duha Tulo Upat Lima Unum Pito Walo Siyam Napulo Ngan Sulod Diri Ngan Kun Ano Kakan-o Hain Ha Ini Kay Gin-aano Kay ano Yana Buwas Tanan Balyo Mahusay Daku Maupay Edaran Asya /? u.? s? / /d?.? h? / /tu.? l? / /? u.? p? t/ /l?.? m? / /? u.? n? m/ /p?.? t? / /w?.? l? / /?? m/ /n?.? p?. l? / /?? n/ /su.? l? d/ /? d?. r? / /?? n/ /kun/ /??.? n? / /ka.? k? n.?? /? h?.?? n/ /h? / /??.? n? / /k? j/ /?? n.???.??. n? / /k? j ??.? n? / /j?.? n? / /bu.? w? s/ /t?.? n? n/ /? b? l. j? / /m?.? h?. saj/ /? d??. k? / /m?.? u. p? j/ /?.? d?. r? n/ /???.?? / 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. Dry Black White Red Wet Mara Itum Busag Pula Basa Guti-ay Damo Harani Lu-uy Guti-ay hubag Maraksut Mapaso Mahagkut Mahugaw Malimpyo Sapit Waray sulod Sunod sayon Makuri Sugot Buho Maturugway Kiwa Ako Kita Ikaw Kamo Hiya Hira Kagat /m?.? r? / /??.? t? m/ /b?.? s?? / /pu.? l? / /b?.? s? / /? u.? t?.? j/ /? d??. m? / /h?.? r?. n? / /lu.? uj/ /? u.? t?.? j/ /hu.? b?? / /m?.? r? k. s? t/ /m?. p?.? s? / /m?.? h??. k? / /? hu.?? w/ /? l? m. pj? / /s?.? p? t/ /w?.? r? y su. l? d/ /su.? n? d/ /? s?. j? n/ /? k?. r? / /su.??? t/ /bu.? hu/ /tu.? r??. w? j/ /k?.? w? / /??.? k? / /k?.? t? / /??.? k? w/ /k?.? m? / /h?.? j? / /h?.? r? / /k?.??? t/ 100. Few 101. Many 102. Near 103. Pity 104. Small 105. Swell 106. Ugly 107. Warm 108. Cold 109. Dirty 110. Clean 111. Beside 112. Empty 113. Next 114. Easy 115. Difficult 116. Obey 117. Hole 118. Guide 119. Movement/ Word 120. I 121. We 122. You (sing) 123. You (pl) 124. He/she it 125. They 126. To bite 127. To carry 128. To divide 129. To breathe 130. To burn 131. To borrow 132. To embrace 133.

To call 134. To die 135. To know 136. To sing 137. To sit 138. To sleep 139. Equal 140. To stand 141. To swim 142. To ride/backride 143. To use 144. To walk 145. To wash 146. To work 147. To write 148. To open 149. To play 150. To pull 151. To push 152. To rain 153. To read 154. To run 155. To say 156. To see 157. To kill 158. To laugh Dad-a Tunga Ginhawa Sunog Huram Gakus Tawag Patay Aram Kanta Lingkud Turog Tupong Tukdaw Langoy Sakay Gamit Lakat Hugas Trabaho Surat Abri Mulay Danas Duso Uran Basa Dalagan Siring/ yakan Kita Patay Tawa /? d? d.?? / /tu.??? / /?? n.? h?. w? / /? su. n? g/ /hu.? r? m/ /??.? k? s/ /? t?. w?? /p?.? t? j/ /??.? r? m/ /? k? n. t? / /? l??. kud/ /tu.? r?? / /? tu. p?? / /? tuk. d? w/ /l?.??? j/ /s?.? k? j/ /?? a. m? t/ /l?.? k? t/ /? hu.?? s/ /tr?.? b?. h? / /su.? r? t/ /??? b. r? / /mu.? laj/ /? d?. n? s/ /du.? s? / /? u.? r? n/ /? b?. s? / /d?.? l?.?? n/ /s?.? r?? / /? k?. t? / /p?.? t? j/ /t?.? w? / 159. To live 160. To fly 161. To give 162. To go 163. To hear 164. To hold 165. To do 166. To drink 167. To eat 168. To fight 169. To die 170. To climb 171. To close 172. To cook 173. To bear 174. To catch 175. To cry 176. To follow 177. Almost 178. To greet 179. To charter a 180. To baptize 181. Much more 182.

To care 183. To accept 184. To go with 185. Tall 186. On top 187. sun 188. day 189. to study 190. to cook rice Buhi Lupad Hatag Lakat Bati Kaput Himo Inum Ka-un Away Patay Saklang Sirado Luto Ilob Salo Tu-uk Sunod Haros Kumusta Plite Bunyag Labi na Timangno Karawat Upod Hataas Igbaw Adlaw Adlaw Tuon Tuon /? bu. h? / /lu.? p? d/ /? h?. t?? / /l?.? k? t/ /? b?. t? / /k?.? p? t/ /? h?. m? / /??.? n? m/ /? k?.? un/ /???. w? j/ /p?.? t? j/ /? s? k. l?? / /s?.? r?. d? / /? lu. t? / /???. l? b/ /s?.? lu/ /tu.?? uk/ /su.? n? d/ /? h??. r? s/ /k?.? m? s. t? / /? pl?. t? / /? bun. j?? / /l?.? b? n? / /t?.? m??. n? / /k?.? r?. ? t/ /? u.? p? d/ /h?.? t?.?? s/ /????. b? w/ /??? d. l? w/ /??? d. l? w/ /tu.??? n/ /? tu.?? n/ 191. floor 192. river 193. How many? 194. Some 195. To know 196. agreement 197. object 198. to put down 199. to smell 200. the smell Salug Salug Pira Pira Sabot Sabot Butang Butang Hamot Hamot /s?.? l?? / /? s?. l? g/ /p?.? r? / /p?.? r? / /s?? b? t/ /? s?. b? t/ /bu.? t?? / /bu.? t?? / /h?.? m? t/ /? h?. m? t/ Verb 201. tawag 202. Tinawag 203. Pinatawag 204. Ipinatawag 205. Tumawag 206. Nagpatawag 207. Tatawag 208. Tumatawag 209. Nagtawag 210. Natawag 211. Tinawagan 212. Nakapagtawag 213. Nagtawagan 214. Tinatawagan 215.

Patawag 216. Katatawag 217. Tatawagin 218. Magtatawagan 219. Sama 220. Sama-sama 221. Samahan Waray Term Tawag Gintawag Ginpatawag Ginpapatawag Tumawag —–Matawag Natawag ———-Gintawag Nakatawag —–Gintatawag Patawagi Katatawag Matawag —–Upod Upod Updan Phonemic Transcription /? t?. w?? / /?? n.? t?. w?? / /?? n. p?.? t?. w?? / /?? n.? p?. p?.? t?. w?? / /tu.? m?. w?? / —–/m?.? t?. w?? / /n?.? t?. w?? / ———-/?? n.? t?. w?? / /n?. k?.? t?. w?? / —–/?? n. t?.? t?. w?? / /p?. t?.? w?.?? / /k?. t?.? t?. w?? / /m?.? t?. w?? / —–/? u.? p? d/ /? u.? p? d/ /?? up. d? n/ 222. Kasamahan 223. Sasama 224.

Sumama 225. Pinasama 226. Nagpasama 227. Magsama 228. Magkasama 229. Sinasamahan 230. Nagsama 231. nasama 232. Kasama 233. Nagsama-sama 234. pasama 235. Pinapasama 236. masasamahan 237. Sumasama 238. Nakikisama 239. Nagsasamahan 240. Masamahan 241. Isinama 242. Napasama 243. Pagsasama 244. Sinama 245. Sinasama 246. Sasamahan 247. Pasamahin 248. Magkakasama 249. magsasama 250. nakasama Kaupod Maupod Umupod Ginpaupod Nagpaupod —–Mag-upod Ginuupdan Nagupod Naupod Upod nag-upod Maupod Ginpapaupod mauupdan Naupod Nakikiupod Magkaupod Mauupdan Ginupod Naupod —–Ginupod Ginu-upod Uupdan I-upod Mag-upod Magu-upod Nakaupod k?.?? u. p? d/ /m?.? u.? p? d/ /? u. m?.? p? d/ /?? n. p?.? u.? p? d/ /n??. p?.? u.? p? d/ —–/m??.? u.? p? d/ /?? n.? u.?? up. d? n/ /n??.? u.? p? d/ /n?.? u.? p? d/ /? u.? p? d/ /n??.? u.? p? d/ /m?.? u.? p? d/ /?? n.? p?. p?.? u. p? d/ /m?.?? u.? up. d? n/ /n?.? u.? p? d/ /n?.? k?. k?.? u. p? d/ /m??. k?.?? u. p? d/ /m?.?? u.? up. d? n/ /?? n.? u.? p? d/ /n?.? u.? p? d/ —–/?? n.? u.? p? d/ /?? n.?? u.? u. p? d/ /? u.?? up. d? n/ /??.? u.? p? d/ /m? g.? u.? p? d/ /m? g.?? u.? u. p? d/ /n?. k?.? u.? p? d/ Appendix C. Hiligaynon Wordlist 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 7. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. English Word animal Ear Earth Egg Eye Revenge Add Flower Fruit Foot Grass Hair Hand Head Clothing Value Dog Heart Husband House leaf Body Blood Bird Back Year Woman Wind Wife Water Hiligaynon Translation Animal Dalunggan duta Itlog Mata Balos Dugang Bulak Prutas Ti-il Hilamon Buhok Kamut Ulo Bayu Balur Ido Kasingkasing Bana Balay Dahon Lawas Dugo Pispis Likud Tuig Bayi Hangin Asawa Tubig Phonemic Transcription /??. n?. m? l/ /d?.? l??. g? n/ /? du?. t?? / /? t.? l? g/ /m?.? t?? / /? b??. l? s/ /? du. g?? / /? bu. l? k/ /? pru. t? s/ /t?.??? / /h?. l?.? m? n/ /bu.? h? k/ /k?.? m? t/ /?? u. l? / /? b??. j?? / /b?.? l? r/ /??.? d?? / /? k?. s??.? k?. s?? / /? b??. n? / /b?.? l? j/ /? d??. h? n/ /? l??. w? s/ /du.? g?? / /? p? s. p? s/ /l?.? k? d/ /? tu?.?? g/ /? b?. j?? / /? h?.?? n/ /??.? s?. w? / /? tu. b? g/ 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. Shiny Kiss Snore Tooth Tongue Sun stone Snake Sky Sister Seed sea left(hand) man/male leg child chicken meat/flesh moon mother mountain mouth name bone brother night nose person rain right(side) river

Gabadlak Haluk Huragok Ngipon Dila Adlaw Bato Sawa Langit Utud nga bayi Pisog Dagat Wala Laki Batiis Bata Manok Karne Bulan Iloy Bukid Baba Ngalan Bukog Manghud (younger sibling) Utod nga laki Gab-i Ilong Tawo Ulan To-u Suba /g?.? b? d. l? k/ /h?.? l? k/ /hu.? r??. g? k/ /???. p? n/ /? d?. l?? / /??? d. l? w/ /b?.? t? / /s?.? w? / /? l?.?? t/ /?? u. t? d ?? ?b?. j? / /p?.? s? g/ /? d?. g? t/ /w?.? l? / /l??. k? / /b?.? t??.?? s/ /? b?. t?? / /m?.? n? k/ /? k? r. n? / /? bu?. l? n/ /??.? l? j/ /? bu?. k? d/ /? b??. b?? / /????. l? n/ /bu.? k? g/ /?? u. t? d ?? ?l?. k? / /? g? b. ?? / /??.? l?? / /? t??. w? /? u.? l? n/ /tu.??? / /su.? b?? / 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. salt One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten And In Not With If What When Where At This Because how Why Today Tomorrow All Interchange Beautiful Big Good Old Asin Usa Duha Tatlo Apat Lima Anum Pito Walo Nuybi Pulo Kag Sa Di Kag Kung Ano San-o Diin Sa Ini Kay Paano Nga-a Subong Bwas Tanan Baylo Gwapa Daku Ma-ayu Tigulang /??.? s? n/ /? u.? s? / /du.? h? / /t? t.? l? / /???. p? t/ /l?.? m? / /???. num/ /p?.? t? / /w?.? l? / /? nuj. b? /? pu. l?? / /k? g/ /s?? / /d?? / /k? g/ /ku? / /??.? n? / /? s? n.?? / /d?.??? n/ /s? / /??.? n? / /k? j/ /p?.???. n? / /???.?? / /su.? b?? / /bw? s/ /t?.? n? n/ /? b? j. l? / /? gw?. p? / /d?.? k?? / /m?.???. j? / /t?.? gu. l?? / 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. Right/correct Dry Black White Red Wet Chakto Mala Itum Puti Pula Basa Gamay Damu Lapit Lu-uy Jutay Iban Law-ay Init Tugnaw Higko Tinlo Tupad Wala sulod Sunod Dali Budlay Hilmunon (not familiar to me) Buslot Giya Hulohambal Hulag(movement) Hambal (word) Ako Kami Ikaw /??? k. t? / /m?.? l?? / /??.? t? m/ /pu.? t?? / /pu.? l? / /b?.? s?? / /g?.? m? j/ /? ??. m?? / /l?.? p? t/ /? l?.?? j/ /?? u. t? j/ /??.? b? n/ /? l? w.?? j/ /???. n? t/ /? tug. n? w/ /? h? g. k?? / /? t? n. l?? / /tu.? p?? d/ /w?.? l?? su.? l? d/ /su.? n? d/ /d?.? l?? / /? bud. l? j/ /h? l.? mu. n? n/ /? bus. l? t/ /? g??. y?? / /? hu. l?.? h? m. b? l/ /? hu. l? g/ /? h? m. b? l/ /??.? k? / /k?.? m? / /??.? k? w/ 100. Few 101. Many 102. Near 103. Pity 104. Small 105. Some 106. Ugly 107. Warm 108. Cold 109. Dirty 110. Clean 111. Beside 112. Empty 113. Next 114. Easy 115. Difficult 116. Obvious 117. Hole 118. Guide 119. Movement/ Word 120. I 121. We 122. You (sing) 123. You (pl) 124.

He/she/it 125. They 126. To bite 127. To carry 128. To divide 129. To breathe 130. To burn 131. To borrow 132. To embrace 133. To call 134. To die 135. To know 136. To sing 137. To sit 138. To sleep 139. To smell 140. To stand 141. To swim 142. To ride/backride 143. To use 144. To walk 145. To wash 146. To work 147. To write 148. To open 149. To play 150. To pull 151. To push 152. To rain 153. To read 154. To run Kamu Sya Sila Kagat Hakwat Bahin Ginhawa Sunog Hulam Hakus Tawag Patay Kabalo Kanta Pungko Tulog Simhut Tindog Langoy Ankas Gamit Lakat Hugas Ubra Sulat Bukas Hampang Butung Tiklud Ulan Basa Dalagan k?.? m? / /?? / /s?.? l? / /k?.? g? t/ /? h? k. w? t/ /? b?. h? n/ /g? n.? h?. w? / /? su. n? g/ /hu.? l? m/ /h?.? k? s/ /t?.? w? g/ /p?.? t? j/ /? k?. b?.? l? / /? k? n. t? / /? pu?. k?? / /? tu. l? g/ /? s? m. h? t/ /? t? n. d? g/ /l?.??? j/ /????. k? s/ /? g?. m? t/ /l?.? k? t/ /? hu. g? s/ /??? b. r? / /su.? l? t/ /bu.? k? s/ /? h? m. p?? / /? bu. t?? / /? t? k. l? d/ /? u.? l? n/ /? b?. s? / /d?.? l??. g? n/ 155. To say 156. To see 157. To kill 158. To laugh 159. To live 160. To fly 161. To give 162. To go 163. To hear 164. To hold 165. To do 166. To drink 167. To eat 168. To fight 169. To die 170.

To climb 171. To close 172. To cook 173. To bear 174. To catch 175. To cry 176. To follow 177. Almost 178. To greet 179. To arrange/ organize 180. To baptize 181. Much more 182. To care 183. To accept 184. To go with 185. Tall 186. On top Hambal Kita Patay Kadlaw Buhi Lupad Hatag Kadtu Bati Hawid Himo Inum Ka-un Away Patay Saka Sira Luto Antus Dakup Hibi Apas Diutayna Binugno/ bugno Areglo Bunyag Ilabi (not familiar) Bakerohan (not familiar) Dahu Upod Taas Babaw /? h? m. b? l/ /? k?. t?? / /p?.? t? j/ /? k? d. l? w/ /? bu. h?? / /lu.? p? d/ /? h?. t? g/ /? k? d. t? / /b?.? t?? / /? h?. w? d/ /? h?. m?? /??.? n? m/ /? k?.?? n/ /???. w? j/ /p?.? t? j/ /? s?. k?? / /s?.? r? / /? lu. t?? / /??? n. t? s/ /d?.? k? p/ /h?.? b?? / /???. p? s/ /? u.? t? j. n? / /b?.? nug. n? / /? bug. n? / /??.? r? g. l? / /? bun. j? g/ /??.? l?. b? / /? b?. k?.? r?. h? n/ /d?. h?? / /? u.? p? d/ /? t?.?? s/ /? b?. b? w/ 187. Fire 188. Far 189. Father 190. Master 191. Tree 192. Full 193. Hunger 194. Hungry 195. Day 196. Sun 197. Other/Different 198. Bad 199. To count 200. To think Verb 201. tawag 202. Tinawag 203. Pinatawag 204. Ipinatawag 205. Tumawag 206. Nagpatawag 207. Tatawag 208. Tumatawag 209. Nagtawag 210. Natawag 211.

Tinawagan 212. Nakapagtawag 213. Nagtawagan 214. Tinatawagan 215. Patawag 216. Katatawag Kalayu Kalayu Ama Ama Puno Puno Gutom Gutom Adlaw Adlaw Lain Lain Isip Isip Hiligaynon Term Tawag Gintawag Ginpatawag Ginpatawag Nagtawag Nagpatawag Matawag Nagatawag Nagtawag —–Gintawgan Nakatawag Nagtawganay Ginatawgan Tawga / patawag Bag-o lang tawag /k?? l?. j? / /k?. l?.? j?? / /???. m? / /???. m? / /? pu. n?? / /pu.? n?? / /? gu. t? m/ /gu.? t? m/ /??? d. l? w/ /??? d. l? w/ /l?.??? n/ /? l?.?? n/ /??. s? p/ /???. s? p/ Phonemic Transcription /t?.? w? g/ /? g? n. t?. wag/ /? g? n. p?. t?.? w? g/ /? g? n. p?. ?.? w? g/ /? n? g. t?. w? g/ /? n? g. p?. t?.? w? g/ /? m?. t?. w? g/ /? n?. g?. t?.? w? g/ /? n? g. t?. w? g/ —–/? g? n. t? w. g? n/ /? n?. k?. t?.? w? g/ /? n? g. t? w. g?.? n? j/ /? g?. n?.? t? w. g? n/ /? t? w. g? / /p?. t?.? w? g/ /? b? g.?? l?? t?.? w? g/ 217. Tatawagin 218. Magtatawagan 219. Sama 220. Sama-sama 221. Samahan 222. Kasamahan 223. Sasama 224. Sumama 225. Pinasama 226. Nagpasama 227. Magsama 228. Magkasama 229. Sinasamahan 230. Nagsama 231. nasama 232. Kasama 233. Kinakasama 234. Pinasama 235. Pinapasama 236. Sasama 237. Sumasama 238. Nakikisama 239. Nagsasamahan 240. Masamahan 241.

Pasama 242. Napasama 243. Pagsasama 244. Sinama 245. Sinasamahan 246. Sasamahan 247. Pasamahin 248. Pakisama 249. Pakikisama Tawgon Magtawganay Upod Updanay Updan Upod Ma-upod Nag-upod Ginpa-upod Nagpa-upod Mag-updanay Updanay Gina-updan Nag-updanay Na-upod Upod —–Ginpa-upod Ginapa-upod Ma-upod Ga-upod —–Ga-updanay Ma-updan Pa-upod Napa-upod —–Gin-upod Gina-updan Updan Pa-upda ———– /t? w.? g? n/ /? m? g. t? w. g?.? n? j/ /? u.? p? d/ /? up. d?.? n? j/ /? up.? d? n/ /? u.? p? d/ /? m?.? u. p? d/ /? n? g.? u. p? d/ /? g? n. p?.? u.? p? d/ /? n? g. p?.? u.? p? d/ /? m? g.? up. d?.? n? j/ /?? p. d?. n? j/ /? g?. n?.?? up. d? n/ /? n? g.? up. d?.? n? j/ /n?.? u.? p? d/ /? u.? p? d/ —–/? g? n. p?.? u.? p? d/ /? g?. n?. p?.? u.? p? d/ /m?.? u.? p? d/ /? g?.? u. p? d/ —–/? g?.? up. d?.? n? j/ /m?.? up. d? n/ /p?.? u.? p? d/ /n?.? p?.? u.? p? d/ —–/? g? n.? u. p? d/ /? g?. n?.?? up. d? n/ /?? up. d? n/ /p?.?? up. d? / ———– 250. Nagsasamahan Naga-updanay /n?. g?.?? up. d?.? n? j/

References: 1. Alcanatara, Ruby V. (1997). Diksyunaryong Hiligaynon-Filipino. Lungsod Quezon: Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Office of Research Coordination, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. 2. Gussenhoven, C. (2001). Suprasegmentals. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pp. 15294-15298. Retrieved September 11, 2010, www. let. ru. nl/gep/carlos/iesbs. pdf 3. Jacobson, Marc R. (1979). Phones in Philippine Languages [Electronic Version]. Studies in Philippine Linguistics 3 (1), pp. 138-164. 4. McFarland, Curtis D. (1994). Subgrouping and Number of the Philippine Languages or How Many Philippine Languages Are There? Philippine Journal of Linguistics 25 [1] and [2]. 5. Zorc, David Paul. (1975). The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Sub-grouping and Reconstruction. Michigan: University Microfilms

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