The Tata Group (Marathi: ???? ???? ) (Hindi: ???? ???? ) is a multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Mumbai, India. In terms of market capitalization and revenues, Tata Group is the largest private corporate group in India. It has interests in steel, automobiles, information technology, communication, power, tea and hospitality. The Tata Group has operations in more than 85 countries across six continents and its companies export products and services to 80 nations. The Tata Group comprises 114 companies and subsidiaries in seven business sectors, 27 of which are publicly listed. 5. 8% of the ownership of Tata Group is held in charitable trusts.  Companies which form a major part of the group include Tata Steel (including Tata Steel Europe), Tata Motors (including Jaguar and Land Rover), Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Technologies, Tata Tea (including Tetley), Tata Chemicals, Titan Industries, Tata Power, Tata Communications, Tata Teleservices and the Taj Hotels. The group takes the name of its founder, Jamsedji Tata, a member of whose family has almost invariably been the chairman of the group. The chairman of the Tata group is Ratan Tata, who took over from J. R. D.
Tata in 1991 and is one of the major international business figures in the age of globality.  The company is currently in its fifth generation of family stewardship.  The 2009 annual survey by the Reputation Institute ranked Tata Group as the 11th most reputable company in the world.  The survey included 600 global companies. HISTORY The beginnings of the Tata Group can be traced back to 1868, when Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata established a trading company dealing in cotton in Bombay (now Mumbai), British India.  This was followed by the installation of Empress Mills in Nagpur in 1877.
Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay (now Mumbai) was opened for business in 1903. Sir Dorab Tata, the eldest son of Jamsetji became the chairman of the group after his fathers death in 1904. Under him, the group ventured into steel production (1905) and hydroelectric power generation(1910). After the death of Dorab Tata in 1934, Nowroji Saklatwala headed the group till 1938. He was succeeded by Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata. The group expanded significantly under him with the establishment of Tata Chemicals (1939), Tata Motors and Tata Industries (both 1945), Voltas (1954), Tata Tea (1962), Tata Consultancy Services (1968) and Titan
Industries (1984). Ratan Tata, the incumbent chairman of the group succeeded JRD Tata in 1991.  JAMSHEDJI TATA Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata (Gujarati: ????????? ?????????????? ???? ; March 3, 1839 – May 19, 1904) was an Indian entrepreneur and industrialist, prominent for his pioneering work in Indian industry. He was born to a Parsi family in Navsari, Gujarat, India. He founded what would later become the Tata Group of companies. Jamsetji Tata is regarded as the “father of Indian industry”. [1 EARLY LIFE Jamshedji Tata was born to Nusserwanji and Jeevanbai Tata on 3 March 1839 in Navsari, a small town in South Gujarat.
Nusserwanji Tata was the first businessman in a family of Parsi Zoroastrian priests. He moved to Bombay and started trading. Jamshedji joined his father in Bombay at the age of 14 and enrolled at the Elphinstone College. He was married to Hirabai Daboo while he was still a student.  He graduated from college in 1858 and joined his father’s trading firm. It was a turbulent time to step into business as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 BUSINESS Jamshedji worked in his father’s until the age of 29. In 1868, he started a trading company with a seed capital of Rs. 1,000. In 1869, he acquired a bankrupt oil mill in Chinchpokli, converted it into a cotton mill and renamed the mill to Alexandra Mill. He sold the mill two years later for a healthy profit. Thereafter he set up a cotton mill in Nagpur in 1874. He christened it Empress Mill on 1 January 1877 when Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. He devoted himself to bringing to fruition four of his key ideas: setting up an iron and steel company, a world-class learning institution, a one-of-a-kind hotel and a hydro-electric plant.
Only one of the ideas became a reality during his lifetime. The Taj Mahal Hotel was inaugurated on the 3rd of December 1903.  However, the foundations laid by him and hard work by his successors ensured that each of the ideas were eventually established and are respectable entities in their respective fields today: • Tata Steel (formerly TISCO – Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited) is Asia’s first and India’s largest and became world’s fifth largest steel company,after it acquired anglo-Dutch Corus group producing 28 million tonnes of steel annually. 5] • The Indian Institute of Science • The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was founded by Dr. Homi Bhabha. Dr. Homi Bhabha approached J. R. D Tata requesting his support towards the establishing of a scientific institution. The institution was founded in 1945. 
• The Tata Power Company Limited is India’s largest private sector electricity generating company with an installed generation capacity of over 2300 MW.  Among his notable ventures that did bear fruition during his lifetime was the historical Taj Mahal Palace & Tower in Colaba district in Mumbai. 8] The hotel was completed for a princely sum of Rs. 4,21,00,000 on 16 December 1903. Taking inflation into account it would cost Rs. 11,475,496,284 (? 160,962,295) in today’s money. J. R. D. Tata Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (July 29, 1904–November 29, 1993) was a pioneer aviator and important businessman of India. He was awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna in 1992. BIOGRAPHY J. R. D. Tata was inspired early by aviation pioneer Louis Bleriot, and took to flying. On February 10, 1929 Tata obtained the first pilot licence issued in India.
He later came to be known as the father of Indian civil aviation. He founded India’s first commercial airline, ‘Tata Airlines’, in 1932, which in 1946 became Air India, now India’s national airline. JRD Tata joined Tata & Sons as an unpaid apprentice in 1925. In 1938, at the age of 34, JRD was elected Chairman of Tata & Sons making him the head of the largest industrial group in India. For decades, J R D directed the huge Tata Group of companies, with major interests in Steel, Engineering, Power,Chemicals and Hospitality.
He was famous for succeeding in business while maintaining high ethical standards – refusing to bribe politicians or use the black market. Under J R D’s chairmanship, the assets of the Tata Group grew from Rs 620 Million to over Rs 100 Billion. He started with 14 enterprises under his leadership and half a century later on July 26, 1988, when he left , Tata ; Sons was a conglomerate of 95 enterprises which they either started or in which they had controlling interest. JRD was the trustee of Sir Dorabji Tata Trust from its inception in 1932 for over half a century.
Under his guidance, this Trust established Asia’s first cancer hospital, the Tata Memorial Center for Cancer, Research and Treatment, in Bombay in 1941. It also founded the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS, 1936), the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR, 1945), and the National Center for Performing Arts. In 1948, JRD Tata launched Air India International as India’s first international airline. In 1953, the Indian Government appointed JRD as Chairman of Air-India and a director on the Board of Indian Airlines – a position JRD retained for 25 years.
For his crowning achievements in Aviation, JRD was bestowed with the title of Honorary Air Commodore of India. In 1956, JRD Tata initiated a program of closer ’employee association with management’ to give workers a stronger voice in the affairs of the company. He firmly believed in employee welfare and espoused the principles of an eight-hour working day, free medical aid, workers’ provident scheme, and workmen’s accident compensation schemes, which were later, adopted as statutory requirements in India.
In 1979, Tata Steel instituted a new practice: a worker being deemed to be “at work” from the moment he leaves home for work till he returns home from work. This made the company financially liable to the worker for any mishap on the way to and from work. Tata Steel Township was also selected as a UN Global Compact City because of the quality of life, conditions of sanitation, roads and welfare that were offered by Tata Steel.