“Regardless of which studies you choose to look at, when American workers are asked if they are satisfied with their jobs, the results tend to be very similar: Between 70 and 80 percent report they’re satisfied with their jobs” (p. 61). 1 “How does one explain these findings? … Because people are likely to seek jobs that provide a good person-job fit, reports of high satisfaction shouldn’t be totally surprising.
Second, based on our knowledge of cognitive dissonance theory (discussed in this chapter), we might expect employees to resolve inconsistencies between dissatisfaction with their jobs and their staying with those jobs by not reporting the dissatisfaction. So these positive findings might be tainted by efforts to reduce dissonance” (p. 61). tainted = belastet, „verdorben“ 2 VALUES Values: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. “Are values fluid and flexible? Generally speaking, No! Values tend to be relatively stable and enduring. A significant portion of the values we hold is established in our early years – from parents, teachers, friends, and others. As children, we are told that certain behaviors or outcomes are always desirable or always undesirable. There were few gray areas… It is this absolute or ‘black-or-white’ learning of values that more or less assures their stability and 3 endurance” (p. 2). IMPORTANCE OF VALUES “Values are important to the study of organizational behavior because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation and because they influence our perceptions” (p. 62). TYPES OF VALUES a) Terminal Values: Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. achieving one’s terminal values. b) Instrumental Values: Preferable modes of behavior or means of 4 Terminal Values
A comfortable life (a prosperous life) An exiting life (a stimulating, active life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world at peace (free of war and conflict) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) National security (protection from attack) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (saved, eternal life) Self-respect (self-esteem) Social recognition (respect, admiration) True friendship (close companionship) Wisdom (a mature understanding of life) Instrumental Values Ambitious (hardworking, aspiring) Broad-minded (open-minded) Capable (competent, effective) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful)
Polite (courteous, well-mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable) Self-controlled (restrained, self-disciplined) 5 Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce Year Born Entered the Workforce Approximate Dominant Current Age Work Values 55-75 early 1960s 45-55 35-45 Under 35 Hard work, conservative; loyalty to the organization Quality of life, nonconforming, seeks autonomy; loyalty to self Success, achievement, ambition, hard work; loyalty to career Flexibility, job satisfaction, balanced lifestyle; loyalty to relationships Stage I. Protestant work ethic II. Existential III. Pragmatic 1925-1945 Early 1940s to 1945-1955 1960s to mid-1970s 1955-1965 Mid-1970s to late 1980s IV. Generation X 1965-1981 Late 1980s to present I. 6 Contemporary Work Cohorts Workers who … entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s believing in the Protestant work ethic. Once hired, they tended to be loyal to their employer” (p. 64). “Employees who entered the workforce during the 1960s through the mid-1970s were influenced heavily by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights movement, the Beatles, the Vietnam war, and baby boom competition. They brought with them a large measure of the ‘hippie ethic’ and existential philosophy. They are more concerned with the quality of their lives than with the amount of money and possessions they can accumulate. Their desire for autonomy has directed their loyalty toward themselves rather than toward the organization that employs them” (p. 65). 7 Individuals who entered the workforce from the mid-1970s though the late 1980s reflect the society’s return to more traditional values, but with far greater emphasis on achievement and material success. As a generation, they were strongly influenced by Reagan conservatism…, these workers are pragmatists who believe that ends can justify means. They see the organizations that employ them merely as vehicles for their careers” (p. 65). “Our final category encompasses what has become known as generation X. Their lives have been shaped by globalization, the fall of communism, MTV, AIDS, and computers. They value flexibility, a balanced lifestyle, and the achievement of job satisfaction. Family and relationships are very important to this cohort.
Money is important as an indicator of career performance, but they are willing to trade off salary increases, titles, security, and promotions for increased leisure time and expanded lifestyle options” (p. 65). 8 VALUES ACROSS CULTURES „Because values differ across cultures, an understanding of these differences should be helpful in explaining and predicting behavior of employees from different countries“ (p. 66). A Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance Individualism versus Collectivism Quantity of Life versus Quality of Life (“Hofstede called this dimension masculinity versus femininity, but we’ve changed his terms because of their strong sexist connotation. “) Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation 9 –
Power Distance: A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Individualism: A national culture attribute describing the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Collectivism: 10 Quantity of Life: A national culture attribute describing the extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism. assertiveness = Durchsetzungsvermogen, Bestimmtheit Quality of Life: A national culture attribute that emphasizes relationships and concern for others. xtent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. Uncertainty Avoidance: A national culture attribute describing the 11 Long-Term Orientation: A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. persistence = Beharrlichkeit thrift = Sparsamkeit Short-Term Orientation: A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligation. 12 Examples of Cultural Dimensions Power Distance Individualism Quantity of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term Orientation Country China France Germany Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Netherlands Russia United States West Africa
High High Low High High Moderate Low High Low High Low High High Low Low Moderate High Moderate High Low Moderate Moderate High High Moderate High Low Low High Moderate Moderate High Moderate Low Low Moderate Moderate High Low Moderate High Low Moderate High Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Low 13 “Dell Computer learned that Chinese work values differ from U. S. work values when it opened a computer factory in Xiamen, China. Chinese workers view the concept of a job for life. They expect to drink tea and read the papers on the job – and still keep their jobs. Dell China executives had to train employees so they understood that their jobs depended on their performance.
To instill workers with a sense of ownership, managers gave employees stock options and explained to them how their increased productivity would result in higher pay” (p. 67). to instill = beibringen, etwas einflo? en 14 ATTITUDES Attitudes: Cognitive Component of an Attitude: Affective Component of an Attitude: Evaluative statements or judgements concerning objects, people, or events. The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component of an Attitude: An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. 15 “In organizations, attitudes are important because they affect job behavior.
If workers believe, for example, that supervisors, auditors, bosses, and time-and-motion engineers are all in conspiracy to make employees work harder for the same or less money, then it makes sense to try to understand how these attitudes were formed, their relationship to actual job behavior, and how they might be changed” (p. 68). TYPES OF ATTITUDES “A person can have thousands of attitudes, but OB focuses our attention on a very limited number of job-related attitudes. These jobrelated attitudes tap positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment” (p. 68). to top = hier: sich beziehen auf 16 Job Satisfaction The term job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job… Because of the high importance OB researchers have given to job satisfaction, we’ll review this attitude in considerable detail later in this chapter” (p. 69). Job Involvement: The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self-worth. “High levels of job involvement have been found to be related to fewer absences and lower resignation rates. However, it seems to more consistently predict turnover than absenteeism” (p. 69). 17 Organizational Commitment: The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. As with job involvement, the research evidence demonstrates negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover” (p. 69). Changing Attitudes “Can you change unfavourable employee attitudes? Sometimes! It depends on who you are, the strength of the employee’s attitude, the magnitude of the change, and the technique you choose to try to change the attitude” (p. 75). 18 JOB SATISFACTION “… an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job” (p. 76). THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE a) a) Satisfaction and Productivity “… happy workers aren’t necessarily productive workers. At the individual level, the evidence suggests the reverse to be more accurate – that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction” (p. 77).
But: “When satisfaction and productivity data are gathered for the organization as a whole, rather than at the individual level, we find that organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with less satisfied employees” (p. 77). 19 b) Satisfaction and Absenteeism “We find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate… While it certainly makes sense that dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work, other factors have an impact on the relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient” (p. 78). c) Satisfaction and Turnover “Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism.
Yet, again, other factors such as labor market conditions, expectations about alternative job opportunities, and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one’s current job” (p. 78). tenure = Dauer der Unternehmenszugehorigkeit 20 HOW EMPLOYEES CAN EXPRESS DISSATISFACTION/ RESPONSES TO JOB DISSATISFACTION Active EXIT Destructive NEGLECT VOICE Constructive LOYALTY Passive 21 Exit: Voice: Dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. conditions to improve. worsen. Loyalty: Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for Neglect: Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to 22